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svalová spasticita

A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a “free interval”) followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)
MSH

Increased involuntary muscle tone caused by central nervous system disorders that affect the regions interfering with voluntary movement. It results in gait, movement, and speech disturbances. Representative examples of disorders causing spasticity include brain or spinal cord injury, and multiple sclerosis.
NCI

A disorder characterized by increased involuntary muscle tone that affects the regions interfering with voluntary movement. It results in gait, movement, and speech disturbances.
NCI

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svaly – tonus

The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)
MSH

resistance to passive elongation or stretch.
CSP

condition of moderate contraction produced by stretching a muscle.
CSP

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svaly hladké cévní

The nonstriated, involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
MSH

nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
CSP

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svaly

contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
CSP

Nonparenchymatous organ that primarily consists of skeletal muscle tissue aggregated into macroscopic fasciculi by connective tissue; together with other muscles, it constitutes the muscular system. Examples: biceps, diaphragm, masseter, right third external intercostal muscle, external oblique, levator ani, serratus anterior.
FMA

Tissue responsible for the body movements and the shape and size changes of interna organs. Muscle tissue is composed of specialized contractile cells. There are two types of muscle tissue recognized: striated and smooth muscle. The striated muscle tissue is further subdivided into skeletal, visceral striated, and cardiac muscle. (NCI)
NCI

One of the contractile organs of the body.
NCI

Tissue responsible for the body movements and the shape and size changes of interna organs. Muscle tissue is composed of specialized contractile cells. There are two types of muscle tissue recognized:striated and smooth muscle. The striated muscle tissue is further subdivided into skeletal, visceral striated, and cardiac muscle.
NCI

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svaly – atrofie

Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
MSH

A process, occurring in the muscle, that is characterized by a decrease in protein content, fiber diameter, force production and fatigue resistance in response to different conditions such as starvation, aging and disuse. [GOC:mtg_muscle]
GO

The loss of muscle tissue due to inactivity or disease.
NCI

A weakening, shrinking, and loss of muscle caused by disease or lack of use. Muscle wasting decreases strength and the ability to move.
NCI

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spinální svalová atrofie

A group of disorders marked by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord resulting in weakness and muscular atrophy, usually without evidence of injury to the corticospinal tracts. Diseases in this category include Werdnig-Hoffmann disease and later onset SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD, most of which are hereditary. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)
MSH

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a genetic disease that attacks nerve cells, called motor neurons, in your spinal cord. These neurons communicate with your voluntary muscles – the ones you can control, like in your arms and legs. As you lose the neurons, your muscles weaken. This can affect walking, crawling, breathing, swallowing and head and neck control.

SMA runs in families. Parents usually have no symptoms, but still carry the gene. Genetic counseling is important if the disease runs in your family.

There are many types of SMA, and some of them are fatal. Life expectancy depends on the type you have and how it affects your breathing. There is no cure. Medicines and physical therapy help treat symptoms.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke


MEDLINEPLUS

An inherited disorder characterized by degeneration of the spinal cord and the cerebellum. Symptoms may appear at any age and include progressive loss of coordination of gait, hands, speech, and eye movements.
NCI

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svaly – nemoci

Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.
MSH

impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning of the muscle.
CSP

Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even paralysis.

There may be no known cause for a muscle disorder. Some known causes include


MEDLINEPLUS

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svalové dystrofie

A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.
MSH

general term for a group of inherited disorders which are characterized by progressive degeneration of skeletal muscles.
CSP

Muscular dystrophy (MD) refers to a group of more than 30 inherited diseases that cause muscle weakness and muscle loss. Some forms of MD appear in infancy or childhood, while others may not appear until middle age or later. The different muscular dystrophies vary in who they affect and the symptoms. All forms of MD grow worse as the person`s muscles get weaker. Most people with MD eventually lose the ability to walk.

There is no cure for muscular dystrophy. Treatments include physical and speech therapy, orthopedic devices, surgery and medications. Some people with muscular dystrophy have mild cases that worsen slowly. Other cases are disabling and severe.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke


MEDLINEPLUS

A group of inherited progressive muscle disorders characterized by muscle weakness and eventual death of the muscle tissues. Examples include Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Becker`s muscular dystrophy, Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy.
NCI

an inherited disease where skeletal muscles are progressively weakened and wasted.
CHV

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nervus musculocutaneus

A major nerve of the upper extremity. The fibers of the musculocutaneous nerve originate in the lower cervical spinal cord (usually C5 to C7), travel via the lateral cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to the upper arm, elbow, and forearm.
MSH

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muskuloskeletální nemoci

Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.
MSH

condition in which there is a deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of any muscles, bones, or cartilages of the body.
CSP

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muskuloskeletální bolest

Discomfort stemming from muscles, ligaments, tendons, and bones.
MSH

Discomfort referable to either the muscles or the bones themselves.
NCI

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muskuloskeletální systém

The MUSCLES, bones (BONE AND BONES), and CARTILAGE of the body.
MSH

all of the muscles, the bones, and the cartilages of the body.
CSP

The system of muscles, tendons, ligaments, bones, joints and associated tissues that move the body and maintain its form.
NCI

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muskuloskeletální systém – fyziologické jevy

Processes and properties of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.
MSH

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houby – otrava

Poisoning from ingestion of mushrooms, primarily from, but not restricted to, toxic varieties.
MSH

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hudba

science or art of ordering tones or sounds in succession, in combination and temporal relationships to produce a composition having unity and continuity.
CSP

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muzikoterapie

The use of music as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of neurological, mental, or behavioral disorders.
MSH

use of music as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of neurological, mental, or behavioral disorders.
CSP

Treatment that uses music to help relieve pain or stress and promote well-being. It is being studied in the treatment of several cancer-related problems and other conditions.
NCI

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slávky, škeble, velevrubové

Marine bivalve mollusks especially of the genus MYTILUS or freshwater bivalve mollusks, especially the genera UNIO and ANODONTA. Mussels usually have a larva (glochidia), and require a fish host to complete development.
MSH

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hořčičné sloučeniny

Strong alkylating and immunosuppressive agents whose biological activity is based on the presence of bis(2-chloroethyl)- groups. Although otherwise structurally diverse, the compounds have in common the capacity to contribute alkyl groups to DNA. They are generally highly toxic but include among their number many widely used and effective antineoplastic agents.
MSH

strong alkylating and immunosuppressive agents whose biological activity is based on the presence of bis(2-chloroethyl)- groups; although structurally diverse, the compounds have in common the capacity to contribute alkyl groups to DNA; they are generally highly toxic but include among their number many widely used and effective antineoplastic agents; use this term to cover the chemical warfare agent mustard gas.
CSP

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yperit

Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).
MSH

A pale yellow, oily, highly toxic, volatile, liquid alkylating compound with a sweet to garlic-like odor that evaporates to a poisonous gas. Mustard gas is a vesicant that was first used in chemical warfare in World War I, but is now only used in small amounts in research studies involving alkylating agents. Exposure to this substance is corrosive to the eyes, skin and lungs and leads to blindness and blistering of the skin and can cause severe and sometimes fatal respiratory damage. Mustard gas is a mutagen and is a known carcinogen that is associated with an increased risk of developing lung and other respiratory tract cancers. (NCI05)
NCI

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mutagenita – testy

Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
MSH

tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential, including cell culture, microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
CSP

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mutageny

Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
MSH

chemical or physical agent that induces or increases genetic mutations by causing changes in DNA.
CSP

Anything that causes a mutation (a change in the DNA of a cell). DNA changes caused by mutagens may harm cells and cause certain diseases, such as cancer. Examples of mutagens include radioactive substances, x-rays, ultraviolet radiation, and certain chemicals.
NCI

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mutace

Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
MSH

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mutismus

The inability to generate oral-verbal expression, despite normal comprehension of speech. This may be associated with BRAIN DISEASES or MENTAL DISORDERS. Organic mutism may be associated with damage to the FRONTAL LOBE; BRAIN STEM; THALAMUS; and CEREBELLUM. Selective mutism is a psychological condition that usually affects children characterized by continuous refusal to speak in social situations by a child who is able and willing to speak to selected persons. Kussmal aphasia refers to mutism in psychosis. (From Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1994; 62(9):337-44)
MSH

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muzolimin

A pyrazole diuretic with long duration and high capacity of action. It was proposed for kidney failure and hypertension but was withdrawn worldwide because of severe neurological effects.
MSH

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myasthenia gravis

A disorder of neuromuscular transmission characterized by weakness of cranial and skeletal muscles. Autoantibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors damage the motor endplate portion of the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, impairing the transmission of impulses to skeletal muscles. Clinical manifestations may include diplopia, ptosis, and weakness of facial, bulbar, respiratory, and proximal limb muscles. The disease may remain limited to the ocular muscles. THYMOMA is commonly associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1459)
MSH

disease characterized by progressive weakness and exhaustibility of voluntary muscles without atrophy or sensory disturbance and caused by an autoimmune attack on acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction.
CSP

A chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by skeletal muscle weakness. It is caused by the blockage of the acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction.
NCI

Myasthenia gravis is disease that causes weakness in the muscles under your control. It happens because of a problem in communication between your nerves and muscles. Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease. Your body`s own immune system makes antibodies that block or change some of the nerve signals to your muscles. This makes your muscles weaker.

Common symptoms are trouble with eye and eyelid movement, facial expression and swallowing. But it can also affect other muscles. The weakness gets worse with activity, and better with rest..

There are medicines to help improve nerve-to-muscle messages and make muscles stronger. With treatment, the muscle weakness often gets much better. Other drugs keep your body from making so many abnormal antibodies. There are also treatments which filter abnormal antibodies from the blood or add healthy antibodies from donated blood. Sometimes surgery to take out the thymus gland helps.

For some people, myasthenia gravis can go into remission and they do not need medicines. The remission can be temporary or permanent.

If you have myasthenia gravis, it is important to follow your treatment plan. If you do, you can expect your life to be normal or close to it.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke


MEDLINEPLUS

A disease in which antibodies made by a person`s immune system prevent certain nerve-muscle interactions. It causes weakness in the arms and legs, vision problems, and drooping eyelids or head. It may also cause paralysis and problems with swallowing, talking, climbing stairs, lifting things, and getting up from a sitting position. The muscle weakness gets worse during activity, and improves after periods of rest.
NCI

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geny v-myb

This gene plays a role in hematopoietic cell proliferation and development.
NCI

Human Oncogene MYB is a mutated variant of MYB Gene, which encodes 6 alternative isoforms of 640 aa 72-kDa nuclear c-MYB protein, a DNA-binding transcriptional activator critical for hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. MYB contains 3 N-terminal MYB-like DNA-binding domains that specifically recognize YAAC[GT]G, a central transcriptional activation domain and a C-terminal transcriptional repression domain. MYB may interact with HIPK2 and NLK; phosphorylation by NLK on multiple sites may induce proteasomal degradation. Ubiquitination may be mediated by SIAH1. Oncogene MYB disrupts normal cell function.
NCI

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geny myc

Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.
MSH

MYC Family Genes encode MYC Family Proteins, class III bHLH leucine zipper transcription factors having cellular proliferative and apoptotic roles. Dimerization via leucine zippers of MYC proteins with bHLH/lz proteins, such as MAX, is required for efficient DNA binding. Leucine zippers are present in many gene regulatory proteins, including CREB proteins, Jun/AP1 transcription factors, and FOS-type proteins, as well as MYC proteins. The periodically repeated leucine side chains extending from one alpha helix interdigitate with leucine residues of another alpha helix, facilitating coiled-coil dimerization; like charge repulsion in this region perturbs homodimer formation; heterodimers are promoted by opposing charge attractions. c-MYC transcription factor binds to CAC(GA)TG DNA sites. MYC sequences have been highly conserved throughout evolution, from Drosophila to vertebrates. (NCI)
NCI

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mykobacilin

A cyclic polypeptide antibiotic isolated from culture filtrates of Bacillus subtilis that acts as an antifungal agent.
MSH

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Mycobacteriaceae

A family of gram-positive bacteria found in soil and dairy products and as parasites on animals and man. Several are important pathogens.
MSH

A taxonomic family of bacterium in the phylum Actinobacteria that includes the genus Mycobacterium, among others.
NCI

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mykobakteriofágy

Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.
MSH

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