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Verdeling, negatieve binomiale

A discrete statistical distribution whose variable has two possible values, “success” and “failure,” and which describes the number of trials necessary to reach a predefined number of “successful” trials. The negative binomial distribution assumes that the trials are independent and that the probability of success does not vary from trial to trial.
NCI

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Negatieve bekrachtiging

use of coercive stimuli for reduction or prevention of probability of reinforcement.
CSP

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negativismus

State of mind or behavior characterized by extreme skepticism and persistent opposition or resistance to outside suggestions or advice. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
MSH

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negroidní rasa

any person whose home, birthpace, or ethnic orgins are in Africa, excluding AFRICAN AMERICAN and AFRICAN CARIBBEAN.
CSP

Denotes a person with African ancestral origins who self identifies, or is identified, as African. The concept does not refer to those of other ancestry, for example, European and South Asian. In practice, the term mainly refers to people originated from forty-eight sub-Saharan Africa nations; and excudes individuals from North Africa countries, e.g. such as Algeria, Morocco, Egypt, Tunisia with Arab and Berber ethnicity.
NCI

Historically, a group distinguished by classification according to physical features and origins in the western, central, and southern parts of Africa.
MSH

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sousedství

A surrounding or nearby region.
NCI

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Neisseria

A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and genitourinary tract. Some species are primary pathogens for humans.
MSH

A genus of Gram-negative, aerobic, strongly oxidase-positive diplococci bacteria in the phylum Proteobacteria.
NCI

a kind of bacteria that can cause meningitis and gonorrhea
CHV

Any bacteria that is not assigned to the species level but can be assigned to the Neisseria genus level.
NCI

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Neisseria gonorrhoeae

species of gram negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges; it is the causative agent of gonorrhea.
CSP

A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.
MSH

Any bacterial organism that can be assigned to the species Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
NCI

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Neisseria meningitidis

gram-negative, aerobic bacteria; a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the nasopharynx; when found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis; also found in venereal discharges and blood; there are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135; each serogroup can be further classifed by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.
CSP

A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.
MSH

A gram negative diplococcal bacterium that is a causative agent for meningitis and other meningococcal diseases.
NCI

Any bacterial organism that can be assigned to the species Neisseria meningitidis.
NCI

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Neisseriaceae

family of gram negative, parasitic bacteria including several important pathogens of man.
CSP

A family of gram-negative, parasitic bacteria including several important pathogens of man.
MSH

A taxonomic family of Gram negative, strictly aerobic bacterium in the phylum Proteobacteria that includes the genera Neisseria, Chromobacterium, Eikenella and Kingella, among others.
NCI

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Nelsonův syndrom

A syndrome characterized by HYPERPIGMENTATION, enlarging pituitary mass, visual defects secondary to compression of the OPTIC CHIASM, and elevated serum ACTH. It is caused by the expansion of an underlying ACTH-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA that grows in the absence of feedback inhibition by adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS, usually after ADRENALECTOMY.
MSH

A syndrome that develops following bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing syndrome. The signs and symptoms result from the presence of an adenocorticotropin-secreting pituitary gland adenoma, and include enlargement of the sella turcica and pressure on the adjacent structures, and skin hyperpigmentation.
NCI

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Phylum Nematoda

class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures; many species are parasites.
CSP

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Nematoda – infekce

Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.
MSH

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Nematospiroides dubius

A species of intestinal nematode parasites which occur most commonly in mice. Infection is by ingesting larvae. This particular species is used extensively in immunological research.
MSH

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zinostatin

An enediyne that alkylates DNA and RNA like MITOMYCIN does, so it is cytotoxic.
MSH

antitumor protein possessing a regulatory function on the metabolism of DNA; also a potent cytostatic agent active against gram-positive bacteria.
CSP

a kind of cancer treatment drug
CHV

An enediyne antineoplastic antibiotic hybrid containing an aminoglycoside chromophore. Zinostatin is isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces carzinostaticus. The aminoglycoside component of zinostatin intercalates into DNA and the benzene diradical intermediate of the enediyne core binds to the minor groove of DNA, resulting in single- and double-strand breaks in DNA and apoptosis. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39510&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39510&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C682″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

An enediyne antineoplastic antibiotic hybrid containing an aminoglycoside chromophore. Zinostatin is isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces carzinostaticus. The aminoglycoside component of zinostatin intercalates into DNA and the benzene diradical intermediate of the enediyne core binds to the minor groove of DNA, resulting in single- and double-strand breaks in DNA and apoptosis. (NCI04)
NCI

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neodym

Neodymium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Nd, atomic number 60, and atomic weight 144.24, and is used in industrial applications.
MSH

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neomycin

Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces fradiae. It is composed of neomycins A, B, and C. It acts by inhibiting translation during protein synthesis.
MSH

A broad spectrum aminoglycoside antibiotic derived from Streptomyces fradiae with antibacterial activity. Neomycin is an antibiotic complex consisting of 3 components: the two isomeric components B and C are the active components, and neomycin A is the minor component. Neomycin irreversibly binds to the 16S rRNA and S12 protein of the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit. As a result, this agent interferes with the assembly of initiation complex between mRNA and the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting the initiation of protein synthesis. In addition, neomycin induces misreading of the mRNA template and causes translational frameshift, thereby results in premature termination. This eventually leads to bacterial cell death.
NCI

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Neomycin Sulfate

The sulfate salt form of neomycin, a broad spectrum aminoglycoside antibiotic derived from Streptomyces fradiae with antibacterial activity. Neomycin is an antibiotic complex consisting of 3 components: the two isomeric components B and C are the active components, and neomycin A is the minor component. Neomycin irreversibly binds to the 16S rRNA and S12 protein of the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit. As a result, this agent interferes with the assembly of initiation complex between mRNA and the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting the initiation of protein synthesis. In addition, neomycin induces misreading of the mRNA template and causes translational frameshift, thereby results in premature termination. This eventually leads to bacterial cell death.
NCI

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neon

Neon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ne, atomic number 10, and atomic weight 20.18. It is found in the earth`s crust and atmosphere as an inert, odorless gas and is used in vacuum tubes and incandescent lamps.
MSH

inert gas element, atomic number 10, symbol Ne.
CSP

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novorozenecký abstinenční syndrom

Fetal and neonatal addiction and withdrawal as a result of the mother`s dependence on drugs during pregnancy. Withdrawal or abstinence symptoms develop shortly after birth. Symptoms exhibited are loud, high-pitched crying, sweating, yawning and gastrointestinal disturbances.
MSH

A constellation of signs and symptoms observable in a neonate that are consistent with maternal substance abuse or withdrawal while pregnant.
NCI

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Coronavirus bovis

A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.
MSH

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vrozené, dědičné a novorozenecké nemoci a abnormality

Diseases existing at birth and often before birth, or that develop during the first month of life (INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES), regardless of causation. Of these diseases, those characterized by structural deformities are termed CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES.
MSH

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Novorozenecká hepatitida

Hepatitis developing during the neonatal period.
NCI

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novorozenci – screening

The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.
MSH

Newborn screening tests take place before your newborn leaves the hospital. Babies are tested to identify serious or life-threatening conditions before symptoms begin. Such diseases are usually rare. However, they can affect a baby`s normal physical and mental development.

Most tests use a few drops of blood from pricking the baby`s heel. A hearing test involves placing a tiny earphone in the baby`s ear and measuring his or her response to sound.

If a screening test suggests a problem, your baby`s doctor will follow up with further testing. If those tests confirm a problem, the doctor may refer you to a specialist for treatment. Following your doctor`s treatment plan can save your baby from lifelong health and developmental problems.


MEDLINEPLUS

A specific type of newborn examination performed to allow for early detection of disease(s) and/or disorder(s).
NCI

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neonatologie

A subspecialty of Pediatrics concerned with the newborn infant.
MSH

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nádorové cirkulující buňky

exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.
CSP

A metastatic cancer cell found in the peripheral blood.
NCI

Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.
MSH

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nádory – invazivní růst

Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
MSH

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metastatické nádory

The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
MSH

transfer and growth of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site; the capacity to metastasize is a characteristic of all malignant cancers.
CSP

The spread of cancer from one part of the body to another. A tumor formed by cells that have spread is called a “metastatic tumor” or a “metastasis.” The metastatic tumor contains cells that are like those in the original (primary) tumor.
NCI

The spread or migration of cancer cells from one part of the body (the organ in which it first appeared) to another. The secondary tumor contains cells that are like those in the original (primary) tumor.
NCI

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nádorové proteiny

Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (TUMOR MARKERS, BIOLOGICAL) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
MSH

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nádory – recidiva lokální

The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
MSH

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nádory – regrese spontánní

Disappearance of a neoplasm or neoplastic state without the intervention of therapy.
MSH

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