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nefritida

Inflammation of any part of the KIDNEY.
MSH

inflammation of the kidney; a focal or diffuse proliferative or destructive process which may involve the glomerulus, tubule, or interstitial renal tissue.
CSP

Inflammation of the kidney. It is a focal or diffuse proliferative or destructive process which may involve the glomerulus, tubule, or interstitial renal tissue. (MeSH)
NCI

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nefritida dědičná

A group of inherited conditions characterized initially by HEMATURIA and slowly progressing to RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. The most common form is the Alport syndrome (hereditary nephritis with HEARING LOSS) which is caused by mutations in genes for TYPE IV COLLAGEN and defective GLOMERULAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE.
MSH

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nefritida intersticiální

Inflammation of the interstitial tissue of the kidney. This term is generally used for primary inflammation of KIDNEY TUBULES and/or surrounding interstitium. For primary inflammation of glomerular interstitium, see GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. Infiltration of the inflammatory cells into the interstitial compartment results in EDEMA, increased spaces between the tubules, and tubular renal dysfunction.
MSH

diffuse or local inflammation and edema of the interstitial tissue of the kidney, including the tubules.
CSP

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Wilmsův nádor

pediatric nephroblastoma originating from embryonic kidney stem cells; usually affects children before the fifth year, but may occur in the fetus or rarely in later life; caused by defects in one or more tumor suppressor genes.
CSP

malignant kidney tumor made up of three cell types: blastemal, stromal, and epithelial, but not all present in every case.
CSP

A disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the kidney, and may spread to the lungs, liver, or nearby lymph nodes. Wilms tumor usually occurs in children younger than 5 years old.
NCI

An embryonal pediatric tumor of the kidney which may also be seen rarely in adults. The peak incidence of Wilms tumor is between the second and fifth year of life. Microscopically, it is composed of a mixture of cellular elements (blastemal, stromal, and epithelial). The most common sites of metastasis include the regional lymph nodes, lungs, and liver.
NCI

An embryonal neoplasm characterized by the presence of epithelial, mesenchymal, and blastema components. The vast majority of cases arise from the kidney. A small number of cases with morphologic features resembling Wilms tumor of the kidney have been reported arising from the ovary and the cervix.
NCI

Wilms` tumor is a rare type of kidney cancer that affects children. It causes a tumor on one or both kidneys. Having certain genetic conditions or birth defects can increase the risk of developing Wilms` tumor. Children who are at risk should be screened for Wilms` tumor every three months until they turn eight.

Possible signs of a kidney tumor include a lump in the abdomen and blood in the urine. The tumor is usually diagnosed and removed in surgery. Other treatments include chemotherapy, radiation, biologic therapy or a combination. Biologic therapy, or immunotherapy, boosts your body`s own ability to fight cancer. Most children with Wilms` tumor can be cured.

NIH: National Cancer Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

A malignant kidney tumor, caused by the uncontrolled multiplication of renal stem (blastemal), stromal (STROMAL CELLS), and epithelial (EPITHELIAL CELLS) elements. However, not all three are present in every case. Several genes or chromosomal areas have been associated with Wilms tumor which is usually found in childhood as a firm lump in a child`s side or ABDOMEN.
MSH

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nefrokalcinóza

A condition characterized by calcification of the renal tissue itself. It is usually seen in distal RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS with calcium deposition in the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES and the surrounding interstitium. Nephrocalcinosis causes RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
MSH

condition characterized by precipitation of calcium phosphate in the tubules of the kidney, with resultant renal insufficiency.
CSP

Deposition of calcium in the renal parenchyma, resulting from high levels of calcium in the blood and/or urine.
NCI

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nefrologie

A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the kidney.
MSH

A branch of medicine concerned with the development, anatomy, function, and dysfunction of the kidney.
NCI

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nefrony

The functional units of the kidney, consisting of the glomerulus and the attached tubule.
MSH

The functional units of the kidney, consisting of the glomerulus and the attached tubule. (MeSH)
NCI

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nefroskleróza

Hardening of the KIDNEY due to infiltration by fibrous connective tissue (FIBROSIS), usually caused by renovascular diseases or chronic HYPERTENSION. Nephrosclerosis leads to renal ISCHEMIA.
MSH

sclerosis or hardening of the kidney due to renovascular disease.
CSP

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nefróza

Pathological processes of the KIDNEY without inflammatory or neoplastic components. Nephrosis may be a primary disorder or secondary complication of other diseases. It is characterized by the NEPHROTIC SYNDROME indicating the presence of PROTEINURIA and HYPOALBUMINEMIA with accompanying EDEMA.
MSH

diseases of the kidney characterized by purely degenerative lesions of the renal tubules without an inflammatory component.
CSP

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nefróza lipoidní

A kidney disease with no or minimal histological glomerular changes on light microscopy and with no immune deposits. It is characterized by lipid accumulation in the epithelial cells of KIDNEY TUBULES and in the URINE. Patients usually show NEPHROTIC SYNDROME indicating the presence of PROTEINURIA with accompanying EDEMA.
MSH

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nefrotický syndrom

A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.
MSH

Nephrotic Syndrome: twenty-four hour urine protein > three grams. May be associated with hypoalbuminemia and hypercholesterolemia.
AIR

diseases involving defective kidney glomeruli, characterized by massive proteinuria and lipiduria with varying degrees of edema, hypoalbuminemia, and hyperlipidemia.
CSP

a kidney disease characterized by a high protein level in urine
CHV

A collection of symptoms that include severe edema, proteinuria, and hypoalbuminemia; it is indicative of renal dysfunction.
NCI

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Ureteronefrektomie

Surgical removal of a kidney and its ureter.
NCI

Surgery to remove a kidney and its ureter.
NCI

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neptunium

Neptunium. A radioactive element of the actinide metals family. It has the atomic symbol Np, atomic number 93, and atomic weight 237.
MSH

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Nerve

Organ subdivision that primarily consists of nerve fibers aggregated into fasciculi by connective tissue to form elongated, cable-like structures that form a tree; together with other nerves (organ part) and nerve plexuses it constitutes the nerve (organ). Examples: radial nerve, sciatic nerve, vagus, chorda tympani, phrenic nerve, pelvic splanchnic nerve.
UWDA

any of the cordlike bundles of fibers made up of neurons through which sensory stimuli and motor impulses pass between the brain or other parts of the central nervous system and the eyes, glands, muscles, and other parts of the body; nerves form a network of pathways for conducting information throughout the body.
CSP

Segment of neural tree organ which has as its parts a nerve trunk and its branches; together with other nerves of the same tree it constitutes a neural tree. Examples: chorda tympani, digastric branch of facial nerve, greater petrosal nerve, posterior cutaneous branch of posterior ramus of cervical nerve, superior lateral cutaneous nerve of arm.
FMA

A bundle of fibers that receives and sends messages between the body and the brain. The messages are sent by chemical and electrical changes in the cells that make up the nerves.
NCI

Part of the peripheral nervous system composed of bundles of nerve fibers running to various organs and tissues of the body using chemical and electrical signals to transmit sensory and motor information from one body part to another.
NCI

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nervová blokáda

Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
MSH

A procedure in which medicine is injected directly into or around a nerve or into the spine to block pain.
NCI

The use of anesthetics in the central or peripheral nervous system to diminish or eliminate the bombardment of the CNS with nociceptive input, which minimizes stress response, adverse spinal reflexes, and wind-up. It may be performed for temporary or permanent pain palliation. (from Rowlingson)
NCI

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syndromy komprese nervů

Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
MSH

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nervy – degenerace

Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
MSH

loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells.
CSP

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nervová zakončení

Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
MSH

sensory receptors for afferent fibers, neuroeffectors for efferent fibers.
CSP

Terminal inflated portion of the axon, containing the specialized apparatus necessary to release neurotransmitters. The axon terminus is considered to be the whole region of thickening and the terminal button is a specialized region of it. [GOC:dph, GOC:jl]
GO

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nervová vlákna

Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the central nervous system.
MSH

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nervová vlákna myelinizovaná

A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
MSH

Axons of neurons encased in a lipoproteinaceous material called myelin. (MeSH)
NCI

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nervový růstový faktor

NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
MSH

first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons; comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits; beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
CSP

A protein made by the body that causes certain nerve cells to grow and helps keep them alive.
NCI

Nerve growth factor. A peptide of 118 amino acids with both chemotropic and chemotrophic properties for sympathetic and sensory neurons. Found in a variety of peripheral tissues, NGF attracts neurites to the tissues by chemotropism, where they form synapses. NGF was the first of a family of nerve tropic factors to be discovered.
NCI

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faktory růstu nervů

Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
MSH

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nervová síť

A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
MSH

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nervy – regenerace

Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
MSH

renewal or physiological repair of damaged tissue in any part of the nervous system.
CSP

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nervová tkáň

Tissue which consists of neurons and their processes and neuroglia. Examples: Neural tissue of brain, neural tissue of peripheral ganglion, neural tissue of nerve.
FMA

The tissue that generates and conducts electrical signals in the body. It contains the neurons.
NCI

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proteiny S100

A family of highly acidic calcium-binding proteins found in large concentration in the brain and believed to be glial in origin. They are also found in other organs in the body. They have in common the EF-hand motif (EF HAND MOTIFS) found on a number of calcium binding proteins. The name of this family derives from the property of being soluble in a 100% saturated ammonium sulfate solution.
MSH

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nervový systém

The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
MSH

entire nerve apparatus; in higher animals it is composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses.
CSP

The organized network of nerve tissue in the body. It includes the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord), the peripheral nervous system (nerves that extend from the spinal cord to the rest of the body), and other nerve tissue.
NCI

The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses.
NCI

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nervový systém – nemoci

Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
MSH

Any deviation from the normal structure or function of the nervous system that is manifested by a characteristic set of symptoms and signs. (NCI)
NCI

impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning of the nervous system.
CSP

Any deviation from the normal structure or function of the nervous system that is manifested by a characteristic set of symptoms and signs.
NCI

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nervový systém – nádory

Benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges. Included in this category are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.
MSH

benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges; included are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.
CSP

A benign or malignant, primary or metastatic neoplasm involving the central or peripheral nervous system.
NCI

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nervový systém – fyziologické jevy

Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
MSH

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