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nervozita

An uneasy psychological state; the anxious feeling you have when you have the jitters.
NCI

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nezidioblastóza

A sporadic or inherited disorder characterized by the focal or diffuse proliferation of Langerhans cells in the pancreas. It results in hyperinsulinemia and hypoglycemia.
NCI

An inherited autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by the disorganized formation of new islets in the PANCREAS and PERSISTENT HYPERINSULINEMIA HYPOGLYCEMIA OF INFANCY. It is due to focal hyperplasia of pancreatic ISLET CELLS budding off from the ductal structures and forming new islets of Langerhans. Mutations in the islet cells involve the potassium channel gene KCNJ11 or the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene ABCC8, both on CHROMOSOME 11.
MSH

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Nested Case-Control Studies

A study in which a group or cohort of individuals is followed for a certain length of time or until a specific outcome is reached. Studies of this type incorporate the strengths of both cohort and case-control studies but eliminates a portion of the methodologic challenges inherent in both types of studies.
NCI

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hnízdění – chování

Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.
MSH

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Nizozemsko

A country in Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between Belgium and Germany. (NCI)
NCI

Description:Realm code for use of The Netherlands


HL7V3.0

A country in Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between Belgium and Germany. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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Nizozemské Antily

A Netherlands overseas territory in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. It includes the islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, St. Eustatius, and the southern part of St. Martin. Its capital is Willemstad. Its former names are Curacao, Netherlands West Indies, and Dutch West Indies. Its colonial status was abolished by the Netherlands government in 1954 but it is considered an integral part of the Dutch realm. There is no positive evidence for the name Antilles. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster`s New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p823)
MSH

A country in the Caribbean, comprising two island groups in the Caribbean Sea – one includes Curacao and Bonaire north of Venezuela; the other is east of the Virgin Islands. (NCI)
NCI

A country in the Caribbean, comprising two island groups in the Caribbean Sea – one includes Curacao and Bonaire north of Venezuela; the other is east of the Virgin Islands. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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netilmicin

Semisynthetic 1-N-ethyl derivative of SISOMYCIN, an aminoglycoside antibiotic with action similar to gentamicin, but less ear and kidney toxicity.
MSH

A semisynthetic, water soluble aminoglycoside derived from sisomicin, a naturally occurring antibiotic produced by the fermentation of Micromonospora inyoensis. Netilmicin irreversibly binds to the 16S rRNA and S12 protein of the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit. As a result, this agent interferes with the assembly of initiation complex between mRNA and the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting the initiation of protein synthesis. In addition, netilmicin induces misreading of the mRNA template and causes translational frameshift, thereby results in premature termination. This eventually leads to bacterial cell death.
NCI

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netropsin

A basic polypeptide isolated from Streptomyces netropsis. It is cytotoxic and its strong, specific binding to A-T areas of DNA is useful to genetics research.
MSH

basic oligopeptide antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces netropsis; it is cytotoxic and is useful in genetics research because it binds specifically and strongly to adenine-thymine areas of DNA.
CSP

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nervové analyzátory

A term used in Eastern European research literature for the functional neural unit that provides the basis for differential sensitivity; the analyzer consists of receptor, afferent nerves, and their central connections. (From Campbell`s Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)
MSH

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nervové vedení

The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
MSH

movement of a nerve impulse along a single nerve.
CSP

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crista neuralis

The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
MSH

strip of specialized ectoderm flanking each side of the embryonal neural plate, which after the closure of the neural tube, forms a column of isolated cells along the dorsal aspect of the neural tube; most of the cranial and all of the spinal sensory ganglion cells arise by differentiation of neural crest cells.
CSP

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nervový útlum

The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
MSH

depression or prevention of neural impulses.
CSP

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nervové dráhy

Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
MSH

Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another. (MeSH)
NCI

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nervový přenos

The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
MSH

communication from a neuron to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a synapse.
CSP

The neurological system process in which a signal is transmitted through the nervous system by synaptic transmission and the sequential electrochemical polarization and depolarization that travels across the membrane of a nerve cell (neuron) in response to stimulation. [GOC:curators, ISBN:0815316194]
GO

The process of communication from a neuron to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a synapse. [GOC:jl, MeSH:D009435]
GO

Any process in which a presynaptic cell transfers a signal to a postsynaptic cell, by either release of a neurotransmitter or by passage of an electrical current via specialized channels. This process is essential to all neuronal functions.
NCI

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neurální trubice – defekty

Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)
MSH

Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain and spinal cord. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In spina bifida, the fetal spinal column doesn`t close completely during the first month of pregnancy. There is usually nerve damage that causes at least some paralysis of the legs. In anencephaly, much of the brain does not develop. Babies with anencephaly are either stillborn or die shortly after birth.

Getting enough folic acid, a type of B vitamin, before and during pregnancy prevents most neural tube defects. Treatments for neural tube defects vary depending on the type of defect.

NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development


MEDLINEPLUS

A congenital defect characterized by failure of the neural tube to close completely; this results in the presence of openings in the brain or spinal cord. Examples of neural tube defects include encephalocele and spina bifida.
NCI

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neuralgie

Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.
MSH

Intense painful sensation along a nerve or group of nerves. It is caused by irritation or trauma to a nerve or inflammation of a nerve.
NCI

A disorder characterized by intense painful sensation along a nerve or group of nerves.
NCI

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neuraminidasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
MSH

Enzyme preparations are products that are used in the histopathology laboratory for the following purposes: (1) To disaggregate tissues and cells already in established cultures for preparation into subsequent cultures (e.g., trypsin); (2) To disaggregate fluid specimens for cytological examination (e.g., papain for gastric lavage or trypsin for sputum liquefaction); (3) To aid in the selective staining of tissue specimens (e.g., diastase for glycogen determination).
SPN

do not confuse with EC 3.2.1.129 or EC 3.2.1.138.
CSP

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neurastenie

A mental disorder characterized by chronic fatigue and concomitant physiologic symptoms.
MSH

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neurilema

The nerve husk. The outermost part of the MYELIN SHEATH covering a myelinated nerve fiber (NERVE FIBERS, MYELINATED) or a bundle of unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED).
MSH

Neural tissue which consists of Schwann cells.
FMA

Nerve sheath that is part of the myelinated segment of an axon. It is composed of Schwann cells.
NCI

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neurilemom

A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)
MSH

A tumor of the peripheral nervous system that arises in the nerve sheath (protective covering). It is almost always benign, but rare malignant schwannomas have been reported.
NCI

a benign tumor that originates from the nervous system
CHV

A benign, usually encapsulated slow growing tumor of the peripheral nervous system composed of well differentiated Schwann cells. It recurs infrequently and only rare cases associated with malignant transformation have been reported.
NCI

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neuritida

A general term indicating inflammation of a peripheral or cranial nerve. Clinical manifestation may include PAIN; PARESTHESIAS; PARESIS; or HYPESTHESIA.
MSH

general term indicating inflammation of a peripheral or cranial nerve.
CSP

inflammation of the peripheral or cranial nerve
CHV

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neuritida autoimunitní experimentální

An experimental animal model for the demyelinating disease of GUILLAINE-BARRE SYNDROME. In the most frequently used protocol, animals are injected with a peripheral nerve tissue protein homogenate. After approximately 2 weeks the animals develop a neuropathy secondary to a T cell-mediated autoimmune response directed towards the MYELIN P2 PROTEIN in peripheral nerves. Pathologic findings include a perivascular accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in the peripheral nervous system, similar to that seen in the Guillaine-Barre syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1314; J Neuroimmunol 1998 Apr 1;84(1):40-52)
MSH

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neuroanatomie

Study of the anatomy of the nervous system as a specialty or discipline.
MSH

structure and relations of the parts of the nervous system.
CSP

A branch of medicine concerned with the anatomy of the nervous system.
NCI

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neurobiologie

The study of the structure, growth, activities, and functions of NEURONS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
MSH

A branch of biology concerned with the development, anatomy, function, and dysfunction of the nervous system.
NCI

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neuroblastom

A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
MSH

common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death; histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa; the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system.
CSP

Cancer that arises in immature nerve cells and affects mostly infants and children.
NCI

Neuroblastoma is a cancer that forms in your nerve tissue. It usually begins in the adrenal glands, which sit atop your kidneys. It may also begin in your neck, chest or spinal cord. The cancer often begins in early childhood. Sometimes it begins before a child is born. By the time doctors find the cancer, it has usually spread to other parts of the body. The most common symptoms are

  • A lump in the abdomen, neck or chest
  • Bulging eyes
  • Dark circles around the eyes
  • Bone pain
  • Swollen stomach and trouble breathing in babies
  • Painless, bluish lumps under the skin in babies
  • Inability to move a body part

Treatments include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy or a combination. Sometimes before giving treatment, doctors wait to see whether symptoms get worse. This is called watchful waiting.

NIH: National Cancer Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

a kind of nerve tissue cancer
CHV

A neuroblastic tumor characterized by the presence of neuroblastic cells, the absence of ganglion cells, and the absence of a prominent Schwannian stroma formation.
NCI

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neurochemie

The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of the NERVOUS SYSTEM or its components.
MSH

branch of neuroscience concerned with the chemistry of the nervous system.
CSP

A branch of neurology concerned with the chemistry of the nervous system.
NCI

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neurocirkulační astenie

A clinical syndrome characterized by palpitation, SHORTNESS OF BREATH, labored breathing, subjective complaints of effort and discomfort, all following slight PHYSICAL EXERTION. Other symptoms may be DIZZINESS, tremulousness, SWEATING, and INSOMNIA. Neurocirculatory asthenia is most typically seen as a form of anxiety disorder.
MSH

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neurodermatitida

An extremely variable eczematous skin disease that is presumed to be a response to prolonged vigorous scratching, rubbing, or pinching to relieve intense pruritus. It varies in intensity, severity, course, and morphologic expression in different individuals. Neurodermatitis is believed by some to be psychogenic. The circumscribed or localized form is often referred to as lichen simplex chronicus.
MSH

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neuroefektorové spoje

The synapse between a neuron (presynaptic) and an effector cell other than another neuron (postsynaptic). Neuroeffector junctions include synapses onto muscles and onto secretory cells.
MSH

junction between a neuron and the effector organ it innervates.
CSP

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neuroendokrinologie

The study of the anatomical and functional relationships between the nervous system and the endocrine system.
MSH

Studies of the interactions between the nervous system and endocrine system.
NCI

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