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neurofibrily

The delicate interlacing threads, formed by aggregations of neurofilaments and neurotubules, coursing through the cytoplasm of the body of a neuron and extending from one dendrite into another or into the axon.
MSH

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neurofibrom

A moderately firm, benign, encapsulated tumor resulting from proliferation of SCHWANN CELLS and FIBROBLASTS that includes portions of nerve fibers. The tumors usually develop along peripheral or cranial nerves and are a central feature of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1, where they may occur intracranially or involve spinal roots. Pathologic features include fusiform enlargement of the involved nerve. Microscopic examination reveals a disorganized and loose cellular pattern with elongated nuclei intermixed with fibrous strands. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1016)
MSH

moderately firm, benign, encapsulated tumor resulting from proliferation of Schwann cells and fibroblasts that includes portions of nerve fibers; tumors usually develop along peripheral or cranial nerves and are a central feature of neurofibromatosis 1, where they may occur intracranially or involve spinal roots. pathologic features include fusiform enlargement of the involved nerve.
CSP

A benign tumor that develops from the cells and tissues that cover nerves.
NCI

An intraneural or extraneural neoplasm arising from nerve tissues and neural sheaths. It is composed of perineurial-like fibroblasts and Schwann cells. It usually presents as a localized cutaneous lesion and less often as a circumscribed peripheral nerve mass. Patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 present with multiple masses. Neurofibromas which arise from major nerves and plexiform neurofibromas are precursor lesions to malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors.
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neurofibromatóza 1

An autosomal dominant inherited disorder (with a high frequency of spontaneous mutations) that features developmental changes in the nervous system, muscles, bones, and skin, most notably in tissue derived from the embryonic NEURAL CREST. Multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions and subcutaneous tumors are the hallmark of this disease. Peripheral and central nervous system neoplasms occur frequently, especially OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA and NEUROFIBROSARCOMA. NF1 is caused by mutations which inactivate the NF1 gene (GENES, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1) on chromosome 17q. The incidence of learning disabilities is also elevated in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1014-18) There is overlap of clinical features with NOONAN SYNDROME in a syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome. Both the PTPN11 and NF1 gene products are involved in the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway of Ras (RAS PROTEINS).
MSH

A rare genetic condition that causes brown spots and tumors on the skin, freckling in skin areas not exposed to the sun, tumors on the nerves, and developmental changes in the nervous system, muscles, bone, and skin.
NCI

Type 1 (peripheral) neurofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen`s disease), is the most common type of neurofibromatosis. It is characterized clinically by cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors with patches of hyperpigmentation. The hyperpigmented skin areas, are present from birth and found anywhere on the body surface. They can vary markedly in size and color. The dark brown areas are called cafe-au-lait spots. The multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors are nerve sheath neoplasms, called neurofibromas. They can develop anywhere along the peripheral nerve fibers. Neurofibromas can become quite large, causing a major disfigurement, eroding bone, and compressing various peripheral nerve structures. Type 1 neurofibromatosis has dominant inheritance, with a gene locus on the proximal long arm of chromosome 17.
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neurofibromatóza 2

An autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a high incidence of bilateral acoustic neuromas as well as schwannomas (NEURILEMMOMA) of other cranial and peripheral nerves, and other benign intracranial tumors including meningiomas, ependymomas, spinal neurofibromas, and gliomas. The disease has been linked to mutations of the NF2 gene (GENES, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2) on chromosome 22 (22q12) and usually presents clinically in the first or second decade of life.
MSH

A genetic condition in which tumors form on the nerves of the inner ear and cause loss of hearing and balance. Tumors may also occur in the brain and on nerves in the skull and spinal cord, and may cause loss of speech, eye movement, and the ability to swallow.
NCI

An autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the NF2 tumor suppressor gene. It is characterized by the development of peripheral and central nervous system tumors including acoustic schwannomas, neurofibromas, gliomas, and meningiomas.
NCI

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Neurofilament

intermediate filaments of neurons which add rigidity, tensile strength, and possibly intracellular transport guidance to axons and dendrites.
CSP

A type of intermediate filament found in the core of neuronal axons. Neurofilaments are heteropolymers composed of three type IV polypeptides: NF-L, NF-M, and NF-H (for low, middle, and high molecular weight). Neurofilaments are responsible for the radial growth of an axon and determine axonal diameter. [ISBN:0198506732 “Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology”, ISBN:0716731363, ISBN:0815316194]
GO

An intermediate filament that is found in the axons of neurons.
NCI

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neuroglie

The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
MSH

non-neuronal cells of the nervous system; they provide physical support, respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons.
CSP

Any of the cells that hold nerve cells in place and help them work the way they should. The types of neuroglia include oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, microglia, and ependymal cells.
NCI

The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the blood-brain and blood-retina barriers, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear. (MeSH)
NCI

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neuroimunomodulace

The biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the NERVOUS SYSTEM and IMMUNE SYSTEM.
MSH

basic studies, including behavioral, on interaction between the nervous and immune systems.
CSP

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neurokinin B

A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ A with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the URINARY BLADDER and UTERUS.
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neuroleptanalgézie

A form of analgesia accompanied by general quiescence and psychic indifference to environmental stimuli, without loss of consciousness, and produced by the combined administration of a major tranquilizer (neuroleptic) and a narcotic.
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neuroleptický maligní syndrom

A potentially fatal syndrome associated primarily with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) which are in turn associated with dopaminergic receptor blockade (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) in the BASAL GANGLIA and HYPOTHALAMUS, and sympathetic dysregulation. Clinical features include diffuse MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; high FEVER; diaphoresis; labile blood pressure; cognitive dysfunction; and autonomic disturbances. Serum CPK level elevation and a leukocytosis may also be present. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199; Psychiatr Serv 1998 Sep;49(9):1163-72)
MSH

A life-threatening condition that may be caused by certain drugs used to treat mental illness, nausea, or vomiting. Symptoms include high fever, sweating, unstable blood pressure, confusion, and stiffness.
NCI

A rare, life-threatening disorder that is caused by neuroleptic medications. It is characterized by fever, muscular cramps and rigidity, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and changes in the mental status that may lead to coma.
NCI

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neurologické vyšetření

The assessment of the functionality of the brain, spinal column, and nerves.
NCI

A series of questions and tests to check brain, spinal cord, and nerve function. The exam checks a person`s mental status, coordination, ability to walk, and how well the muscles, sensory systems, and deep tendon reflexes work.
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neurologické manifestace

clinical signs and symptoms caused by nervous system injury or dysfunction.
CSP

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neurologie

A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.
MSH

the branch of medical science that deals with the study of structure, function, and diseases of the nervous system; for thorough searching also see NEUROSCIENCE, MENTAL DISORDER, NERVOUS SYSTEM DISORDER, NERVOUS SYSTEM DISORDER DIAGNOSIS, MENTAL DISORDER DIAGNOSIS, NERVOUS SYSTEM DISORDER CHEMOTHERAPY, COMMUNICATION DISORDER, NEUROMUSCULAR DISORDER.
CSP

A branch of medicine concerned with the development, anatomy, function, and dysfunction of the nervous system.
NCI

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neurom

A tumor made up of nerve cells and nerve fibers. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

A tumor that arises in nerve cells.
NCI

A tumor that grows from a nerve or is composed of nerve cells and nerve fibers.
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neurom akustiku

A benign SCHWANNOMA of the eighth cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE), mostly arising from the vestibular branch (VESTIBULAR NERVE) during the fifth or sixth decade of life. Clinical manifestations include HEARING LOSS; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; TINNITUS; and FACIAL PAIN. Bilateral acoustic neuromas are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p673)
MSH

Acoustic neuroma is a non-cancerous tumor that develops on the nerve that connects the ear to the brain. The tumor usually grows slowly. As it grows, it presses against the hearing and balance nerves. At first, you may have no symptoms or mild symptoms. They can include

  • Loss of hearing on one side
  • Ringing in ears
  • Dizziness and balance problems

Acoustic neuroma can be difficult to diagnose, because the symptoms are similar to those of middle ear problems. Ear exams, hearing tests and scans can show if you have it.

If the tumor stays small, you may only need to have it checked regularly. If you do need treatment, surgery and radiation are options. If the tumors affect both hearing nerves, it is often because of a genetic disorder called neurofibromatosis. The tumor can also eventually cause numbness or paralysis of the face. If it grows large enough, it can press against the brain, becoming life-threatening.


MEDLINEPLUS

A type of benign brain tumor that begins in the Schwann cells, which produce the myelin that protects the acoustic nerve – the nerve of hearing.
NCI

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nervosvalové látky

Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.
MSH

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nervosvalové blokátory

Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.
MSH

drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction; they prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, and in convulsive states.
CSP

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nervosvalové látky depolarizující

Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction by causing sustained depolarization of the motor end plate. These agents are primarily used as adjuvants in surgical anesthesia to cause skeletal muscle relaxation.
MSH

drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction by causing sustained depolarization of the motor end plate; primarily used as adjuvants in surgical anesthesia to cause skeletal muscle relaxation.
CSP

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neuromuskulární nemoci

A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.
MSH

diseases affecting the parts of motor units that are in the peripheral nervous system; can be classified as affecting neuromuscular junctions, and muscle fibers.
CSP

Neuromuscular disorders affect the nerves that control your voluntary muscles. Voluntary muscles are the ones you can control, like in your arms and legs. Your nerve cells, also called neurons, send the messages that control these muscles. When the neurons become unhealthy or die, communication between your nervous system and muscles breaks down. As a result, your muscles weaken and waste away. The weakness can lead to twitching, cramps, aches and pains, and joint and movement problems. Sometimes it also affects heart function and your ability to breathe.

Examples of neuromuscular disorders include

Many neuromuscular diseases are genetic, which means they run in families or there is a mutation in your genes. Sometimes, an immune system disorder can cause them. Most of them have no cure. The goal of treatment is to improve symptoms, increase mobility and lengthen life.


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nervosvalové spoje

The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
MSH

synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
CSP

The junction between the axon of a motor neuron and a muscle fiber. In response to the arrival of action potentials, the presynaptic button releases molecules of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. These diffuse across the cleft and transmit the signal to the postsynaptic membrane of the muscle fiber, leading to a post-synaptic potential responsible of the muscle contraction. [GOC:nln]
GO

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nervosvalová vřeténka

Skeletal muscle structures that function as the mechanoreceptors responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag1 fibers, nuclear bag2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by sensory neurons.
MSH

The Muscle Spindle is composed of intrafusal fibers that are located within and run parallel to the extrafusal fibers of skeletal muscle. When the extrafusal fibers are stretched, the intrafusal fibers of the spindle stretch as well. When stretching occurs, the sensory neuron from the muscle spindle signals the motor neurons located within the ventral horn of the spinal cord. This signal causes the motor neurons to fire, resulting in contraction of the muscle. This reflex arc provides negative feedback. The muscular contraction induced by the stretching works against or negates further muscle stretch. This mechanism helps to maintain proper muscle tension or tone. Although the muscle spindle helps to maintain proper muscle tension, unlike the Golgi tendon organ, it is not an indicator of muscle tension, but rather of muscle length.
NCI

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neuromyelitis optica

A syndrome characterized by acute OPTIC NEURITIS in combination with acute MYELITIS, TRANSVERSE. Demyelinating and/or necrotizing lesions form in one or both optic nerves and in the spinal cord. The onset of optic neuritis and myelitis may be simultaneous or separated by several months. (J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1996 Apr;60(4):382-387)
MSH

An autoimmune inflammatory syndrome characterized by optic neuritis and myelitis. Signs and symptoms include loss of vision, weakness and paralysis of the extremities, and loss of sensation.
NCI

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molekuly buněčné adheze neuron-gliové

Cell adhesion molecules that mediate neuron-neuron adhesion and neuron-astrocyte adhesion. They are expressed on neurons and Schwann cells, but not astrocytes and are involved in neuronal migration, neurite fasciculation, and outgrowth. Ng-CAM is immunologically and structurally distinct from NCAM.
MSH

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neuronové ceroidlipofuscinózy

inherited degenerative disease characterized by neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions which stain positively for ceroid and lipofuscin.
CSP

A group of severe neurodegenerative diseases characterized by intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent wax-like lipid materials (CEROID; LIPOFUSCIN) in neurons. There are several subtypes based on mutations of the various genes, time of disease onset, and severity of the neurological defects such as progressive DEMENTIA; SEIZURES; and visual failure.
MSH

A group of mostly autosomal recessive inherited neurodegenerative disorders characterized by accumulation of lipofuscin in the neuronal cells and in other tissues including liver, spleen, kidneys, and myocardium. Signs and symptoms include motor disturbances and cognitive decline.
NCI

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neuronová plasticita

The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
MSH

ability of mature nerves and neurons to adapt their functional and morphological characteristics to environmental influences, such as during learning or compensation after loss.
CSP

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neurony

The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
MSH

basic cellular units of nervous tissue; each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites and their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the nervous system.
CSP

A type of cell that receives and sends messages from the body to the brain and back to the body. The messages are sent by a weak electrical current.
NCI

Somatic cell which is dervied from the neuro-ectoderm or the neural crest.
FMA

Neural cell which has as its direct parts a cell body (soma) and one or more neurites; the neuron is the structural and functional unit of the nervous system. Examples: unipolar neuron, bipolar neuron, neuron of retina.
FMA

Any of the conducting cells of the nervous system. A typical neuron consists of a cell body, containing the nucleus and the surrounding cytoplasm (perikaryon); several short radiating processes (dendrites); and one long process (the axon), which terminates in twiglike branches (telodendrons) and may have branches (collaterals) projecting along its course.
NCI

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neurony aferentní

Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
MSH

Neurons which convey sensory information centrally from the periphery. (MeSH)
NCI

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neurony eferentní

neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
CSP

Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells. (MeSH)
NCI

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hereditární motoricko-senzorické neuropatie

group of peripheral nervous system hereditary disorders with varying course, symptoms, neuropathology, and genetics, but generally involving gradual loss of nerve conduction, distal wasting, deformity, and disability.
CSP

A group of slowly progressive inherited disorders affecting motor and sensory peripheral nerves. Subtypes include HMSNs I-VII. HMSN I and II both refer to CHARCOT-MARIE-TOOTH DISEASE. HMSN III refers to hypertrophic neuropathy of infancy. HMSN IV refers to REFSUM DISEASE. HMSN V refers to a condition marked by a hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy associated with spastic paraplegia (see SPASTIC PARAPLEGIA, HEREDITARY). HMSN VI refers to HMSN associated with an inherited optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHIES, HEREDITARY), and HMSN VII refers to HMSN associated with retinitis pigmentosa. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)
MSH

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dědičné senzorické a autonomní neuropatie

A group of inherited disorders characterized by degeneration of dorsal root and autonomic ganglion cells, and clinically by loss of sensation and autonomic dysfunction. There are five subtypes. Type I features autosomal dominant inheritance and distal sensory involvement. Type II is characterized by autosomal inheritance and distal and proximal sensory loss. Type III is DYSAUTONOMIA, FAMILIAL. Type IV features insensitivity to pain, heat intolerance, and mental deficiency. Type V is characterized by a selective loss of pain with intact light touch and vibratory sensation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, pp142-4)
MSH

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