Additional pages

nomifensin

An isoquinoline derivative that prevents dopamine reuptake into synaptosomes. The maleate was formerly used in the treatment of depression. It was withdrawn worldwide in 1986 due to the risk of acute hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis resulting from its use. In some cases, renal failure also developed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p266)
MSH

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nonachlazin

Coronary vasodilator with a novel mechanism of action; proposed as antianginal agent.
MSH

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nedirektivní terapie

A procedure in which the therapist refrains from directing the client, but instead reflects back to the client what the latter has said, sometimes restating the client`s remark.
MSH

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nondisjunkce genetická

The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
MSH

failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during meiosis, or the failure of sister chromatids to separate during mitosis.
CSP

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neodontogenní cysty

Cysts formed from epithelial inclusions in the lines of fusion of the embryonic processes which form the jaws. They include nasopalatine or incisive canal cyst, incisive papilla cyst, globulomaxillary cyst, median palatal cyst, median alveolar cyst, median mandibular cyst, and nasoalveolar cyst.
MSH

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nesupresibilní insulinu podobná aktivita

A blood protein (NSILA) which mimics the biological activity of insulin in serum, but is not suppressed by insulin antibodies. During acid-ethanol extraction of Cohn fraction III, 10% of the activity is found in the supernatant (NSILA-S) and the remaining activity in the precipitate (NSILA-P). The latter is a large molecular compound, much less stable than the soluble fraction. NSILA-S is a more potent growth factor than insulin and exhibits sulfation activity.
MSH

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neverbální komunikace

Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between individuals in ways other than the spoken language.
MSH

communicative behavior not involving language; e.g., hand gestures or facial expression.
CSP

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Noonanové syndrom

A genetically heterogeneous, multifaceted disorder characterized by short stature, webbed neck, ptosis, skeletal malformations, hypertelorism, hormonal imbalance, CRYPTORCHIDISM, multiple cardiac abnormalities (most commonly including PULMONARY VALVE STENOSIS), and some degree of INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. The phenotype bears similarities to that of TURNER SYNDROME that occurs only in females and has its basis in a 45, X karyotype abnormality. Noonan syndrome occurs in both males and females with a normal karyotype (46,XX and 46,XY). Mutations in a several genes (PTPN11, KRAS, SOS1, NF1 and RAF1) have been associated the the NS phenotype. Mutations in PTPN11 are the most common. LEOPARD SYNDROME, a disorder that has clinical features overlapping those of Noonan Syndrome, is also due to mutations in PTPN11. In addition, there is overlap with the syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome due to mutations in NF1.
MSH

Noonan syndrome caused by mutations in the PTPN11 gene.
NCI

A genetic syndrome caused by mutations in the PTPN11 gene (over 50% of the cases) or less frequently mutations in the SOS1, RAF1, or KRAS genes. It is characterized by short stature, webbed neck, hypertelorism, low-set ears, deafness, and thrombocytopenia or abnormal platelet function.
NCI

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Norepinephrine Bitartrate

A bitartrate salt of norepinephrine, a synthetic phenylethylamine that mimics the sympathomimetic actions of the endogenous norepinephrine. Norepinephrine bitartrate acts directly on the alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors. Clinically, norepinephrine is used as a peripheral vasoconstrictor that causes constriction of arterial and venous beds via its alpha-adrenergic action. It is also used as a potent inotropic and chronotropic stimulator of the heart mediated through its beta-1 adrenergic action.
NCI

The bitartrate salt form of levarterenol, the levorotatory isomer of norepinephrine with a vasoconstrictor effect. Levarterenol binds to alpha and beta-1 receptor sites of sympathetic effector cells, thereby causing vasoconstriction of the radial smooth muscle of the arteries, arterioles, and veins and increasing myocardial contractility, heart rate, automaticity, and artrioventricular (AV) conduction, respectively. Stimulation of the beta-2 adrenergic receptors causes bronchiolar and vascular smooth muscle dilatation.
NCI

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norandrostany

Androstanes in which ring contractions have occurred or which are lacking carbon-18. Compounds with any degree of unsaturation are included. Androstanes which are lacking carbon-19 are ESTRANES.
MSH

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kyselina nordihydroguaiaretová

A potent lipoxygenase inhibitor that interferes with arachidonic acid metabolism. The compound also inhibits formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, carboxylesterase, and cyclooxygenase to a lesser extent. It also serves as an antioxidant in fats and oils.
MSH

A naturally occurring antioxidant dicatechol originally derived from the creosote bush Larrea divaricatta with antipromoter, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic activities. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) directly inhibits activation of two receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), the insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) and the c-erbB2/HER2/neu receptor, resulting in decreased proliferation of susceptible tumor cell populations. This agent may induce apoptosis in susceptible tumor cell populations as a result of disruption of the actin cytoskeleton in association with the activation of stress activated protein kinases (SAPKs). In addition, NDGA inhibits arachidonic acid 5-lipoxygenase (5LOX), resulting in diminished synthesis of inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandins and leukotrines; it may prevent leukocyte infiltration into tissues and the release of reactive oxygen species and, at higher concentrations, may also inhibit cyclooxygenase. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=479648&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=479648&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C701″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

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noradrenalin

Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
MSH

precursor of epinephrine; widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter, principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers; secreted by the adrenal medulla; used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
CSP

A synthetic phenylethylamine that mimics the sympathomimetic actions of the endogenous norepinephrine. Norepinephrine acts directly on the alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors. Clinically, norepinephrine is used as a peripheral vasoconstrictor that causes constriction of arterial and venous beds via its alpha-adrenergic action. It is also used as a potent inotropic and chronotropic stimulator of the heart mediated through its beta-1 adrenergic action.
NCI

A naturally occurring catecholamine hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter in the sympathetic nervous system. Norepinephrine directly stimulates adrenergic receptors. Stimulation of alpha-adrenergic receptors causes vasoconstriction of the radial smooth muscle of the iris, arteries, arterioles, veins, urinary bladder, and the sphincter of the gastrointestinal tract. Stimulation of beta-1 adrenergic receptors causes an increase in myocardial contractility, heart rate, automaticity, and atrioventricular (AV) conduction while stimulation of beta-2 adrenergic receptors causes bronchiolar and vascular smooth muscle dilatation.
NCI

A chemical made by some nerve cells and in the adrenal gland. It can act as both a neurotransmitter (a chemical messenger used by nerve cells) and a hormone (a chemical that travels in the blood and controls the actions of other cells or organs). Noradrenaline is released from the adrenal gland in response to stress and low blood pressure.
NCI

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norethandrolon

A synthetic hormone with anabolic and androgenic properties and moderate progestational activity.
MSH

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norethindron

A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.
MSH

synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of progesterone but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation; has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties; has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.
CSP

A synthetic progestational substance with some anabolic, estrogenic, and androgenic properties. Norethindrone binds to the progesterone intracellular receptors in the reproductive system and the resultant activated complex interacts with specific DNA sites. This leads to an alteration in protein synthesis and results in an inhibition of LH release. Consequently, it inhibits ovulation and changes the normal cycle of cervical mucus and endometrium.
NCI

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norethynodrel

A synthetic progestational hormone with actions and uses similar to those of PROGESTERONE. It has been used in the treatment of functional uterine bleeding and endometriosis. As a contraceptive, it has usually been administered in combination with MESTRANOL.
MSH

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norfenfluramin

A FENFLURAMINE analog that inhibits serotonin uptake and may provoke release of serotonin. It is used as an appetite depressant and an experimental tool in animal studies.
MSH

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norfloxacin

A synthetic fluoroquinolone (FLUOROQUINOLONES) with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Norfloxacin inhibits bacterial DNA GYRASE.
MSH

A synthetic, broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone with antibacterial activity. Norfloxacin inhibits activity of DNA gyrase, thereby blocking bacterial DNA replication. Norfloxacin concentrates in the renal tubules and bladder and is bactericidal against a wide range of aerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.
NCI

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Norfolk Island

A country in the Pacific, occupying an island in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Australia. (NCI)
NCI

A country in the Pacific, occupying an island in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Australia. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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norgestrel

A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.
MSH

A synthetic progestin commonly used alone or in combination with an estrogen for contraception. Norgestrel suppresses the secretion of luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones (LH and FSH), thickens cervical mucus, and slows the transit of ova through the fallopian tubes. This agent also exhibits antiproliferative activity in endometrial tissue and may exhibit chemopreventive and antineoplastic activities in endometrial carcinoma. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39310&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39310&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C703″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A synthetic progestin commonly used alone or in combination with an estrogen for contraception. Norgestrel suppresses the secretion of luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones (LH and FSH), thickens cervical mucus, and slows the transit of ova through the fallopian tubes. This agent also exhibits antiproliferative activity in endometrial tissue and may exhibit chemopreventive and antineoplastic activities in endometrial carcinoma. (NCI04)
NCI

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norgestrienon

A synthetic steroid with progestational and contraceptive activities.
MSH

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norleucin

An unnatural amino acid that is used experimentally to study protein structure and function. It is structurally similar to METHIONINE, however it does not contain SULFUR.
MSH

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normální rozdělení

Continuous frequency distribution of infinite range. Its properties are as follows: 1, continuous, symmetrical distribution with both tails extending to infinity; 2, arithmetic mean, mode, and median identical; and 3, shape completely determined by the mean and standard deviation.
MSH

A family of probability density functions whose mean, median and mode are identical. The function generates a symmetrical curve, whose position and shape is determined by its location and scale parameters, the mean and standard deviation respectively. The standard normal distribution has a location parameter of 0 and a scale parameter of 1.
NCI

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normetanefrin

A methylated metabolite of norepinephrine that is excreted in the urine and found in certain tissues. It is a marker for tumors.
MSH

3-methylnorepinephrine, a metabolite of epinephrine excreted in urine.
CSP

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norpregnadieny

Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.
MSH

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norpregnany

Pregnanes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19. Unsaturation in the steroid ring system is not included.
MSH

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norpregnatrieny

Pregnatrienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.
MSH

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norpregneny

Pregnenes with one double bond or more than three double bonds which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19..
MSH

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norprogesterony

Progesterones which have undergone ring contraction or which are lacking carbon 18 or 19.
MSH

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norsteroidy

Steroids which have undergone contraction in ring size or reduction in side chains.
MSH

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norsynefrin

An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.
MSH

alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic catecholamine formed from tyramine and found in the nervous system and in platelets.
CSP

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