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jaderný obal

The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
MSH

membrane system of the cell nucleus that surrounds the nucleoplasm.
CSP

Either of the lipid bilayers that surround the nucleus and form the nuclear envelope; excludes the intermembrane space. [GOC:mah, GOC:pz]
GO

The double lipid bilayer enclosing the nucleus and separating its contents from the rest of the cytoplasm; includes the intermembrane space, a gap of width 20-40 nm (also called the perinuclear space). [ISBN:0198547684]
GO

The double-layer membrane structure enclosing the nucleus in eukaryotic cells. It separates the DNA of the cell from the cytosol. For exchange of material, for example, proteins and mRNA, it is punctured with numerous nuclear pores.
NCI

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jaderná fyzika

The study of the characteristics, behavior, and internal structures of the atomic nucleus and its interactions with other nuclei. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
MSH

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Nucleopolyhedrovirus

A genus of the family BACULOVIRIDAE, subfamily Eubaculovirinae, characterized by the formation of crystalline, polyhedral occlusion bodies in the host cell nucleus. The type species is Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus.
MSH

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jaderný pór

An opening through the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE formed by the nuclear pore complex which transports nuclear proteins or RNA into or out of the CELL NUCLEUS and which, under some conditions, acts as an ion channel.
MSH

Any of the numerous similar discrete openings in the nuclear envelope of a eukaryotic cell, where the inner and outer nuclear membranes are joined. [ISBN:0198547684]
GO

An octagonal opening, about 70 nm across, where the inner and outer membranes of the nuclear envelope are continuous.
NCI

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jaderné proteiny

Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
MSH

proteins found in the nucleus of a cell; do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEIN which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus; prefer indexing specific nuclear protein when possible; not all nuclear proteins are treed here.
CSP

Proteins that are localized to the nucleus of the cell. These proteins are involved in a variety of cellular regulation functions including transport, gene expression, and cell signaling.
NCI

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atomové reaktory

Devices containing fissionable material in sufficient quantity and so arranged as to be capable of maintaining a controlled, self-sustaining NUCLEAR FISSION chain reaction. They are also known as atomic piles, atomic reactors, fission reactors, and nuclear piles, although such names are deprecated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
MSH

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nukleární válka

Warfare involving the use of NUCLEAR WEAPONS.
MSH

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nukleové kyseliny – konformace

The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
MSH

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nukleové kyseliny – denaturace

Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is “melted” by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
MSH

disorganization of secondary structures of nucleic acids through cleavage of hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic linkages.
CSP

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nukleové kyseliny – heteroduplexy

Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.
MSH

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Nucleic Acid Hybridization

zipping reaction between complementary DNA or RNA single strands to form a duplex (double stranded) molecule; basis of many techniques for assaying nucleic acid sequence complementarity.
CSP

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nukleové kyseliny – prekursory

Use for nucleic acid precursors in general or for which there is no specific heading.
MSH

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nukleové kyseliny – sondy

nucleic acid which complements a specific mRNA or DNA molecule, or fragment thereof; used for hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms and for genetic studies.
CSP

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nukleové kyseliny – renaturace

The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.
MSH

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nukleové kyseliny

High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.
MSH

naturally occurring or synthetic polynucleotides; DNA or RNA.
CSP

A family of macromolecules, composed of various moieties: purines, pyrimidines, phosphoric acid, and a pentose, either d-ribose or d-deoxyribose. Nucleic acids as DNA or RNA is found in the chromosomes, nucleoli, mitochondria, and cytoplasm of all cells, and in viruses. Nucleic acids are the major players in controlling cellular function and heredity. (NCI)
NCI

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jadérko – oblast organizátoru

The chromosome region which is active in nucleolus formation and which functions in the synthesis of ribosomal RNA.
MSH

A region of a chromosome where nucleoli form during interphase, and where genes encoding the largest rRNA precursor transcript are tandemly arrayed. [PMID:14504406]
GO

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nukleoproteiny

Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
MSH

any supramolecular complex of protein and nucleic acid (DNP, RNP); or, any protein usually found closely associated with nucleic acid (e.g., histones).
CSP

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nukleosidasy

N-GLYCOSYL HYDROLASES that catalyze the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nucleoside-linked sugars.
MSH

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nukleosiddeaminasa

Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleosides with the elimination of ammonia.
MSH

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nukleosiddifosfátkinasa

An enzyme that is found in mitochondria and in the soluble cytoplasm of cells. It catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside diphosphate, e.g., UDP, to form ADP and UTP. Many nucleoside diphosphates can act as acceptor, while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.6.
MSH

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nukleosidmonofosfátkinasa

An enzyme that catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside monophosphate, e.g., UMP, to form ADP and UDP. Many nucleoside monophosphates can act as acceptor while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.4.
MSH

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nukleosid Q

A modified nucleoside which is present in the first position of the anticodon of tRNA-tyrosine, tRNA-histidine, tRNA-asparagine and tRNA-aspartic acid of many organisms. It is believed to play a role in the regulatory function of tRNA. Nucleoside Q can be further modified to nucleoside Q*, which has a mannose or galactose moiety linked to position 4 of its cyclopentenediol moiety.
MSH

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nukleosidy

Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
MSH

purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose.
CSP

Any of the glycosylamines consisting of either a purine or pyrimidine nucleobase, to a ribose or deoxyribose ring. Examples of these include cytidine, uridine, adenosine, guanosine, thymidine, inosine and others.
NCI

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nukleové kyseliny, nukleosidy a nukleotidy

Complex compounds of high molecular weight occurring in living cells. These are basically of two types, ribonucleic (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic (DNA) acids, both of which consist of nucleotides (nucleoside phosphates linked together by phosphate bridges).
MSH

A header concept for chemicals that are the building blocks of inherited genetic information. The monomer structure (nucleoside) contains either a purine or pyrimidine base linked to a deoxyribose or ribose carbohydrate group. Nucleotides are composed of a nucleoside and one to three phosphate groups. Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides that are linked by phosphodiester bonds.
NCI

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nukleozómy

The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. This core is composed of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.
MSH

complex of histone and DNA in eukaryotic cells, seen in the electron microscope as beadlike bodies on a string of DNA.
CSP

The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. This core is composed of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.
NCI

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nukleotidasy

A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.
MSH

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nukleotiddeaminasa

Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotides with the elimination of ammonia.
MSH

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nukleotidy – mapování

Two-dimensional separation and analysis of nucleotides.
MSH

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nukleotidy

The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
MSH

nucleoside phosphates, the building blocks of nucleic acids.
CSP

A subunit of DNA or RNA consisting of a nitrogenous base (adenine, guanine, thymine, or cytosine in DNA; adenine, guanine, uracil, or cytosine in RNA), a phosphate molecule, and a sugar molecule (deoxyribose in DNA and ribose in RNA).
NCI

A molecule consisting of a nitrogen-containing base (adenine, guanine, thymine, or cytosine in DNA; adenine, guanine, uracil, or cytosine in RNA), a phosphate group, and a sugar (deoxyribose in DNA; ribose in RNA). DNA and RNA are polymers comprised of many nucleotides, strung together like beads in a necklace.
NCI

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nukleotidyltransferasy

A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
MSH

nucleotidyltransferases. Enzymes (EC class 2.7.7) transferring nucleotide residues (nucleotidyls) from nucleoside di- or triphosphates into dimer or polymer forms. Some nucleotidyltransferases bear specific names (e.g., adenylyltransferases), or trivial names indicating the linkage hydrolyzed in the synthesis (pyrophosphorylases, phosphorylases), or names of the material synthesized (RNA or DNA polymerase).
NCI

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