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oktany

Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
MSH

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Octodon

A genus of diurnal rats in the family Octodonidae, found in South America. The species Octodon degus is frequently used for research.
MSH

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Octopoda

An eight-armed cephalopod mollusk belonging to the order Octopoda. It includes the octopus as food.
MSH

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oktreotid

A potent, long-acting synthetic SOMATOSTATIN octapeptide analog that inhibits secretion of GROWTH HORMONE and is used to treat hormone-secreting tumors; DIABETES MELLITUS; HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC; HYPERINSULINISM; hypergastrinemia; and small bowel fistula.
MSH

potent, long-acting synthetic somatostatin octapeptide analog.
CSP

A drug similar to the naturally occurring growth hormone inhibitor somatostatin. Octreotide is used to treat diarrhea and flushing associated with certain types of tumors.
NCI

A synthetic long-acting cyclic octapeptide with pharmacologic properties mimicking those of the natural hormone somatostatin. Octreotide is a more potent inhibitor of growth hormone, glucagon, and insulin than somatostatin. Similar to somatostatin, this agent also suppresses the luteinizing hormone response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone, decreases splanchnic blood flow, and inhibits the release of serotonin, gastrin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), secretin, motilin, pancreatic polypeptide, and thyroid stimulating hormone.
NCI

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oční hypertenze

A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.
MSH

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oční hypotenze

Abnormally low intraocular pressure often related to chronic inflammation (uveitis).
MSH

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oči – poruchy hybnosti

Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)
MSH

pathologic process affecting the voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
CSP

When you look at an object, you`re using several muscles to move both eyes to focus on it. If you have a problem with the muscles, the eyes don`t work properly.

There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are:

  • Strabismus – a disorder in which the two eyes don`t line up in the same direction. This results in “crossed eyes” or “walleye.”
  • Nystagmus – fast, uncontrollable movements of the eyes, sometimes called “dancing eyes”

Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over time and may be associated with other problems, such as injuries. Treatments include glasses, eye muscle exercises, and surgery. There is no treatment for some kinds of eye movement disorders, such as most kinds of nystagmus.


MEDLINEPLUS

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oči – fyziologické jevy

Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
MSH

The science concerned with the normal processes of sight.
NCI

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okulocerebrorenální syndrom

A sex-linked recessive disorder affecting multiple systems including the EYE, the NERVOUS SYSTEM, and the KIDNEY. Clinical features include congenital CATARACT; MENTAL RETARDATION; and renal tubular dysfunction (FANCONI SYNDROME; RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS; X-LINKED HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA or vitamin-D-resistant rickets) and SCOLIOSIS. This condition is due to a deficiency of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-5-phosphatase leading to defects in PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL metabolism and INOSITOL signaling pathway. (from Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p60; Am J Hum Genet 1997 Jun;60(6):1384-8)
MSH

sex-linked recessive disorder of amino acid transport which affects the eye, nervous system, and kidney; manifestations include cataract, glaucoma, aminoaciduria, hypophosphatemic rickets, developmental delay, myopathy, peripheral neuropathy, and hypotonia; associated with deficient activity of the enzyme phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-5-phosphatase.
CSP

An X-linked inherited multisystem metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the OCRL1 gene. The main manifestations of this disorder result from involvement of the eyes, nervous system and kidneys. Signs and symptoms include congenital cataracts, infantile glaucoma, intellectual disability, hypotonia, aminoaciduria and renal tubular dysfunction.
NCI

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okulomotorické svaly

The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
MSH

voluntary muscles which control eye movement.
CSP

A group of six muscles that are responsible for moving the eye.
NCI

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nervus oculomotorius

The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
MSH

Cranial nerve which connects the midbrain to the extra-ocular and intra-ocular muscles.
UWDA

third cranial nerve; sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye; sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation; motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
CSP

Cranial nerve which connects the midbrain to the extra-ocular and intra-ocular muscles.
FMA

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nervus oculomotorius – nemoci

Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)
MSH

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Oddiho svěrač

The sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla within the duodenal papilla. The COMMON BILE DUCT and main pancreatic duct pass through this sphincter.
MSH

The muscle fibres around the opening of the common bile duct (ductus choledochus) into the duodenum at the papilla of Vater.
NCI

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poměr šancí

The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
MSH

A measure of the odds of an event happening in one group compared to the odds of the same event happening in another group. In cancer research, odds ratios are most often used in case-control (backward looking) studies to find out if being exposed to a certain substance or other factor increases the risk of cancer. For example, researchers may study a group of individuals with cancer (cases) and another group without cancer (controls) to see how many people in each group were exposed to a certain substance or factor. They calculate the odds of exposure in both groups and then compare the odds. An odds ratio of one means that both groups had the same odds of exposure and, therefore, the exposure probably does not increase the risk of cancer. An odds ratio of greater than one means that the exposure may increase the risk of cancer, and an odds ratio of less than one means that the exposure may reduce the risk of cancer.
NCI

The ratio of the odds of an event occurring in one group to the odds of it occurring in another group, or to a sample-based estimate of that ratio.
NCI

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odontoblasty

connective tissue cell which deposits dentin and forms the outer surface of the dental pulp adjacent to the dentin.
CSP

A cell derived from a preodontoblast that secretes predentin. Each odontoblast has a cytoplasmic extension, an odontoblastic process that traverses the thickness of the dentin and helps to maintain the dentin.
NCI

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odontogeneze

The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).
MSH

development of dental tissues and teeth.
CSP

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a tooth or teeth over time, from formation to the mature structure(s). A tooth is any hard bony, calcareous, or chitinous organ found in the mouth or pharynx of an animal and used in procuring or masticating food. [GOC:jl, GOC:mah]
GO

The process of tooth development.
NCI

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odontogenní cysty

Cysts found in the jaws and arising from epithelium involved in tooth formation. They include follicular cysts (e.g., primordial cyst, dentigerous cyst, multilocular cyst), lateral periodontal cysts, and radicular cysts. They may become keratinized (odontogenic keratocysts). Follicular cysts may give rise to ameloblastomas and, in rare cases, undergo malignant transformation.
MSH

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odontogenní nádory

Neoplasms produced from tooth-forming tissues.
MSH

A benign or malignant neoplasm arising from tooth-forming tissues. It occurs in the maxillofacial skeleton or the gingiva. Benign tumors are slow growing and are not associated with specific clinical symptoms. Pain is absent or slight. Malignant tumors are usually associated with rapid swelling and pain.
NCI

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dens axis

The toothlike process on the upper surface of the axis, which articulates with the CERVICAL ATLAS above.
MSH

A bony tooth-like process projecting from the second cervical vertebra. It serves as the structure that supports the rotation of the first cervical vertebra.
NCI

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odontom

A mixed tumor of odontogenic origin, in which both the epithelial and mesenchymal cells exhibit complete differentiation, resulting in the formation of tooth structures. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
MSH

A benign, slow growing, and painless hamartomatous tumor occurring in tooth-bearing areas of the jaws. According to the presence or absence of tooth-like structures, it is classified as complex type or compound type. Odontoma of complex type is characterized by the presence of enamel and dentin and the absence of tooth-like structures. It is treated with local excision. If it is incompletely removed, it may recur. Odontoma of compound type is characterized by the presence of tooth-like structures. It is treated by local excision. Recurrences have not been reported.
NCI

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pachy, vůně

The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh`s Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
MSH

volatile portions of substances capable of stimulating sense of smell.
CSP

The sensation that results when olfactory receptors in the nose are stimulated by particular chemicals in gaseous form.
NCI

A smell.
NCI

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oidipovský komplex

Attachment of the child to the parent of the opposite sex, accompanied by envious and aggressive feelings toward the parent of the same sex.
MSH

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ezofágostomiáza

Infection of the intestinal tract with worms of the genus OESOPHAGOSTOMUM. This condition occurs mainly in animals other than man.
MSH

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Oesophagostomum

A genus of nematodes of the superfamily STRONGYLOIDEA, parasitic in the intestines of animals. The adults are usually free in the intestinal lumen; the larvae encyst in the wall.
MSH

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mimosilniční motorová vozidla

Motorized, recreational vehicles used on non-public roads. They include all-terrain vehicles, dirt-bikes, minibikes, motorbikes, trailbikes, and snowmobiles. Excludes MOTORCYCLES, which are considered public road vehicles.
MSH

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administrativa – automatizace

Use of computers or computer systems for doing routine clerical work, e.g., billing, records pertaining to the administration of the office, etc.
MSH

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ordinace – řízení

Planning, organizing, and administering activities in an office.
MSH

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ošetřovatelství v ordinaci

Nursing practice limited to an office setting.
MSH

Nursing care provided in an ambulatory setting, such as a clinic or physician`s office.
NCI

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návštěvy v ordinaci

Visits made by patients to health service providers` offices for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up.
MSH

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ofloxacin

A synthetic fluoroquinolone (FLUOROQUINOLONES) antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.
MSH

An antibiotic drug used to treat infection. It belongs to the family of drugs called quinolone antibiotics.
NCI

A fluoroquinolone antibacterial antibiotic. Ofloxacin binds to and inhibits bacterial topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and topoisomerase IV, enzymes involved in DNA replication and repair, resulting in cell death in sensitive bacterial species. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42865&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42865&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C712″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A fluoroquinolone antibacterial antibiotic. Ofloxacin binds to and inhibits bacterial topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and topoisomerase IV, enzymes involved in DNA replication and repair, resulting in cell death in sensitive bacterial species. (NCI04)
NCI

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