Additional pages

ortopsychiatrie

The study and treatment of human behavior problems utilizing principles derived from the behavioral, medical, and social science with emphasis on promotion of mental health.
MSH

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Orthoptera

order of insects comprising two suborders: Caelifera and Ensifera; organisms include grasshoppers, locusts, and crickets (Gryllidae).
CSP

An order of insects comprising two suborders: Caelifera and Ensifera. They consist of GRASSHOPPERS, locusts, and crickets (GRYLLIDAE).
MSH

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ortoptika

The study and treatment of defects in binocular vision resulting from defects in the optic musculature or of faulty visual habits. It involves a technique of eye exercises designed to correct the visual axes of eyes not properly coordinated for binocular vision.
MSH

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protetické prostředky

Apparatus used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities or to improve the function of movable parts of the body.
MSH

A device applied to a human limb to control or enhance movement or to prevent bone movement or deformity, for example, a splint or an arch support.
CHV

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Oryzias

The only genus in the family Oryziinae, order BELONIFORMES. Oryzias are egg-layers; other fish of the same order are livebearers. Oryzias are used extensively in testing carcinogens.
MSH

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oscilometrie

The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.
MSH

study of the records of oscillations in electric current waveform.
CSP

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osmium

Osmium. A very hard, gray, toxic, and nearly infusible metal element, atomic number 76, atomic weight 190.2, symbol Os. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

very hard, gray, toxic and nearly infusible metal; atomic number 76, symbol Os.
CSP

An element with atomic symbol Os, atomic number 76, and atomic weight 190.23.
NCI

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oxid osmičelý

(T-4)-Osmium oxide (OsO4). A highly toxic and volatile oxide of osmium used in industry as an oxidizing agent. It is also used as a histological fixative and stain and as a synovectomy agent in arthritic joints. Its vapor can cause eye, skin, and lung damage.
MSH

A general purpose reagent is a chemical reagent that has general laboratory application, that is used to collect, prepare, and examine specimens from the human body for diagnostic histopathology, cytology, and hematology, and that is not labeled or otherwise intended for a specific diagnostic application. General purpose reagents include cytological preservatives, decalcifying reagents, fixatives and adhesives, tissue processing reagents, isotonic solutions, and pH buffers.
SPN

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osmotická koncentrace

The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
MSH

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osmóza

Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
MSH

tendency of fluids to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
CSP

Diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal.
NCI

Having to do with osmosis (the passage of a liquid through a membrane from a less concentrated solution to a more concentrated one). This causes the more concentrated solution to become diluted, and makes the concentrations in both solutions more equal. Osmotic also refers to a type of laxative that increases the amount of water in the large intestine, which softens the stool to help it pass more easily.
NCI

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osmotická fragilita

RED BLOOD CELL sensitivity to change in OSMOTIC PRESSURE. When exposed to a hypotonic concentration of sodium in a solution, red cells take in more water, swell until the capacity of the cell membrane is exceeded, and burst.
MSH

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osmotický tlak

The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
MSH

pressure generated by the mass flow of water to that side of a membrane bounded structure that contains the higher concentration of solute molecules.
CSP

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sluchové kůstky – protézy

An implant used to replace one or more of the ear ossicles. They are usually made of plastic, Gelfoam, ceramic, or stainless steel.
MSH

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osifikace heterotopická

The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.
MSH

development of bony substance in normally soft structures.
CSP

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osteitida

inflammation of bone, involving the haversian spaces, canals, and their branches and generally the medullary cavity, and marked by enlargement of the bone, tenderness and a dull, aching pain.
CSP

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osteitis deformans

A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass. The resultant architecture of the bone assumes a mosaic pattern in which the fibers take on a haphazard pattern instead of the normal parallel symmetry.
MSH

disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass.
CSP

A disease of bone that initially results in the excessive resorption of bone (by osteoclasts) followed by the replacement of normal bone marrow with vascular and fibrous tissue. (On-line Medical Dictionary)
NCI

Paget`s disease of bone causes your bones to grow larger and weaker than normal. They also might break easily. The disease can lead to other health problems, too, such as arthritis and hearing loss. You can have Paget`s disease in any bone, but it is most common in the spine, pelvis, skull and legs. The disease might affect one or several bones, but not your entire skeleton. More men than women have the disease. It is most common in older people.

Many people do not know they have Paget`s disease because their symptoms are mild. For others, symptoms can include

  • Pain
  • Enlarged bones
  • Broken bones
  • Damaged cartilage in joints

No one knows what causes Paget`s disease. In some cases, a virus might be responsible. It tends to run in families. You can treat Paget`s disease with medicine and sometimes surgery. A good diet and exercise might also help.

NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass.
CHV

A chronic condition in which both the breakdown and regrowth of bone are increased. Paget disease of bone occurs most frequently in the pelvic and leg bones, skull, and lower spine. It is most common in older individuals, and may lead to bone pain, deformities, and fractures.
NCI

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osteitis fibrosa cystica

A fibrous degeneration, cyst formation, and the presence of fibrous nodules in bone, usually due to HYPERPARATHYROIDISM.
MSH

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osteoartritida

A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
MSH

noninflammatory degenerative joint disease occurring chiefly in older persons, characterized by degeneration of the articular cartilage, hypertrophy of bone at the margins, and changes in the synovial membrane, accompanied by pain and stiffness.
CSP

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It causes pain, swelling and reduced motion in your joints. It can occur in any joint, but usually it affects your hands, knees, hips or spine.

Osteoarthritis breaks down the cartilage in your joints. Cartilage is the slippery tissue that covers the ends of bones in a joint. Healthy cartilage absorbs the shock of movement. When you lose cartilage, your bones rub together. Over time, this rubbing can permanently damage the joint. Factors that may cause osteoarthritis include

  • Being overweight
  • Getting older
  • Injuring a joint

Therapies that manage osteoarthritis pain and improve function include exercise, weight control, rest, pain relief, alternative therapies and surgery.

NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

A noninflammatory degenerative joint disease occurring chiefly in older persons, characterised by degeneration of the articular cartilage, hypertrophy of bone at the margins and changes in the synovial membrane. It is accompanied by pain and stiffness, particularly after prolonged activity. (On-line Medical Dictionary)
NCI

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KOXARTROSIA

Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the hip joint which usually appears in late middle or old age. It is characterized by growth or maturational disturbances in the femoral neck and head, as well as acetabular dysplasia. A dominant symptom is pain on weight-bearing or motion.
MSH

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osteoartropatie primární hypertrofická

A conditioned chiefly characterized by thickening of the skin of the head and distal extremities, deep folds and furrows of the skin of the forehead, cheeks, and scalp, seborrhea, hyperhidrosis, periostosis of the long bones, digital clubbing, and spadelike enlargement of the hands and feet. It is more prevalent in the male, and is usually first evident during adolescence. It is believed to be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

A rare disorder of unknown etiology characterized by hypertrophy of the bones of the distal extremities, periostosis of the tubular bones, digital clubbing, and skin changes including coarse facial features, acne, and hyperhydrosis.
NCI

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osteoartropatie sekundární hypertrofická

Symmetrical osteitis of the four limbs, chiefly localized to the phalanges and the terminal epiphyses of the long bones of the forearm and leg, sometimes extending to the proximal ends of the limbs and the flat bones, and accompanied by dorsal kyphosis and joint involvement. It is often secondary to chronic conditions of the lungs and heart. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

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osteoblastom

A benign, painful, tumor of bone characterized by the formation of osteoid tissue, primitive bone and calcified tissue. It occurs frequently in the spine of young persons. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
MSH

A rare benign bone-forming neoplasm usually arising from the spine. It is a well-circumscribed lytic tumor that varies in size. The tumor is composed of woven bone trabeculae and shares similar histologic characteristics with the osteoid osteoma. Surgical curettage is the treatment of choice. The prognosis is excellent.
NCI

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osteoblasty

Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
MSH

bone forming cells which secrete an extracellular matrix, hydroxyapatite crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
CSP

Cells which secrete an extracellular matrix into which hydroxyapaetite crystals are deposited to form bone.
NCI

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osteokalcin

Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
MSH

small acidic protein found in bone, dentin, calcified ectopic tissue, and plasma; comprises 1-2% of total bone protein, and has high Gla content.
CSP

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osteochondritida

Inflammation of a bone and its overlaying CARTILAGE.
MSH

inflammation of both bone and cartilage.
CSP

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osteochondritis dissecans

A type of osteochondritis in which articular cartilage and associated bone becomes partially or totally detached to form joint loose bodies. Affects mainly the knee, ankle, and elbow joints.
MSH

separation of a portion of joint cartilage and of underlying bone due to loss of blood supply
CHV

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osteochondrodysplazie

Abnormal development of cartilage and bone.
MSH

A term referring to disorders characterized by abnormalities in the development of bones and cartilage.
NCI

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osteochondrom

A cartilage-capped benign tumor that often appears as a stalk on the surface of bone. It is probably a developmental malformation rather than a true neoplasm and is usually found in the metaphysis of the distal femur, proximal tibia, or proximal humerus. Osteochondroma is the most common of benign bone tumors.
MSH

A common, benign cartiliginous neoplasm arising from the metaphysis of bone. The tumor grows on the surface of the bone; it may be pedunculated or sessile. It is characterized by the presence of chondrocytes, a cartilage cap, and a fibrous perichondrium that extends to the periosteum of the bone. In some cases, there is deletion of 8q24.1 chromosome locus.
NCI

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osteochondróza

Any of a group of bone disorders involving one or more ossification centers (EPIPHYSES). It is characterized by degeneration or NECROSIS followed by revascularization and reossification. Osteochondrosis often occurs in children causing varying degrees of discomfort or pain. There are many eponymic types for specific affected areas, such as tarsal navicular (Kohler disease) and tibial tuberosity (Osgood-Schlatter disease).
MSH

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osteoklasty

A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
MSH

large multinuclear cell associated with the absorption and removal of bone.
CSP

A large multinuclear cell associated with the absorption and removal of bone. (MeSH)
NCI

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