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osteocyty

Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
MSH

an osteocyte is an osteoblast that is embedded in bony tissue and which is relatively inactive; osteocytes occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
CSP

Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the bone matrix. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi. (MeSH)
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osteogeneze

The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
MSH

production of bone; histogenesis of bone including ossification; do not confuse with the growth and development of bone, BONE DEVELOPMENT.
CSP

The formation of bone or of a bony substance; the conversion of fibrous tissue or of cartilage into bone or a bony substance.
NCI

The formation of bone or of a bony substance, or the conversion of fibrous tissue or of cartilage into bone or a bony substance. [GOC:mtg_mpo, PMID:17572649]
GO

The formation of bone or of a bony substance; the conversion of fibrous tissue or of cartilage into bone or a bony substance.
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osteogenesis imperfecta

COLLAGEN DISEASES characterized by brittle, osteoporotic, and easily fractured bones. It may also present with blue sclerae, loose joints, and imperfect dentin formation. Most types are autosomal dominant and are associated with mutations in COLLAGEN TYPE I.
MSH

autosomal dominant collagen disease resulting from defective biosynthesis of collagen type I and characterized by brittle, osteoporotic, and easily fractured bones; may also present with blue sclerae, loose joints, and imperfect dentin formation.
CSP

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder in which bones break easily. Sometimes the bones break for no known reason. OI can also cause weak muscles, brittle teeth, a curved spine and hearing loss. The cause is a gene defect that affects how you make collagen, a protein that helps make bones strong. Usually you inherit the faulty gene from a parent. Sometimes, it is due to a mutation, a random gene change.

OI can range from mild to severe and symptoms vary from person to person. A person may have just a few or as many as several hundred fractures in a lifetime. There is no cure, but you can manage symptoms. Treatments include exercise, pain medicine, physical therapy, wheelchairs, braces and surgery.

NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

A group of usually autosomal dominant inherited disorders characterized by defective synthesis of collagen type I resulting in defective collagen formation. It is characterized by brittle and easily fractured bones.
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osteolýza

Dissolution of bone that particularly involves the removal or loss of calcium.
MSH

Dissolution of bone; applied especially to the removal or loss of the calcium of bone.
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osteolýza esenciální

Syndromes of bone destruction where the cause is not obvious such as neoplasia, infection, or trauma. The destruction follows various patterns: massive (Gorham disease), multicentric (HAJDU-CHENEY SYNDROME), or carpal/tarsal.
MSH

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osteom

A benign tumor composed of bone tissue or a hard tumor of bonelike structure developing on a bone (homoplastic osteoma) or on other structures (heteroplastic osteoma). (From Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

A rare benign overgrowth of bone.
NCI

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osteom osteoidní

Benign circumscribed tumor of spongy bone occurring especially in the bones of the extremities and vertebrae, most often in young persons. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

A small benign bone-forming neoplasm characterized by the presence of differentiated osteoblasts. The tumor is usually surrounded by hypervascular sclerotic bone and has limited growth potential. Clinical signs and symptoms include pain and localized tenderness, at the site of the lesion. The pain may be intense, but in the majority of cases it is completely alleviated by aspirin. Prognosis is excellent and recurrences are rare.
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osteomalacie

A condition marked by softening of the bones (due to impaired mineralization, with excess accumulation of osteoid), with pain, tenderness, muscular weakness, anorexia, and loss of weight, resulting from deficiency of vitamin D and calcium. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

inadequate or delayed mineralization of osteoid in mature cortical and spongy bone.
CSP

A condition in adults in which bones become soft and deformed because they don`t have enough calcium and phosphorus. It is usually caused by not having enough vitamin D in the diet, not getting enough sunlight, or a problem with the way the body uses vitamin D. Symptoms include bone pain and muscle weakness. When the condition occurs in children, it is called rickets.
NCI

A metabolic bone disease that results from either a deficiency in vitamin D, or an abnormality in the metabolism of vitamin D, or a deficiency of calcium in the diet. The most common symptoms are bone pain and muscle weakness. When it occurs in children it is commonly referred to as rickets. (Diagnostic Surgical Pathology, 3rd ed.) –2003
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osteomyelitida

inflammation of the bone marrow and adjacent bone caused by a pyogenic organism; it may remain localized or may spread through the bone to involve the marrow, cortex, cancellous tissue, and periosteum.
CSP

Inflammation of the bone caused by an infection, which may spread to the bone marrow and tissues near the bone. Osteomyelitis can cause severe pain in the infected bone. If it is not treated, it can kill bone tissue.
NCI

An acute or chronic inflammation of the bone and its structures due to infection with pyogenic bacteria.
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osteonekróza

death of a bone or part of a bone, either atraumatic or posttraumatic.
CSP

Osteonecrosis occurs when your bones lose their blood supply. The bones die and eventually collapse, leading to pain and arthritis. You can have osteonecrosis in one or several bones. It is most common in the upper leg. Other common sites are your upper arm and your knees, shoulders and ankles. The disease can affect men and women of any age, but it usually strikes in your thirties, forties or fifties.

Early in the disease you might not have any symptoms. Later, you will probably have joint pain that becomes more severe as the disease gets worse.

No one is sure what causes the disease. Risk factors include

  • Long-term steroid treatment
  • Alcohol abuse
  • Joint injuries
  • Having certain diseases, including arthritis and cancer

Treatments include medicines, using crutches, limiting activities that put weight on the affected joints, electrical stimulation and surgery.

NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

death of a bone or part of a bone
CHV

Death of bone tissue due to traumatic or nontraumatic causes.
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osteonektin

Non-collagenous, calcium-binding glycoprotein of developing bone. It links collagen to mineral in the bone matrix. In the synonym SPARC glycoprotein, the acronym stands for Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine.
MSH

fibronectinlike extracellular glycoprotein found in mineralizing fetal bone; considered a marker for osteogenesis.
CSP

SPARC (303 aa, ~35 kDa) is encoded by the human SPARC gene. This protein is involved in calcium binding and deposition, cell cycle progression, extracellular matrix synthesis and cell morphology.
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osteopatické lékařství

A medical discipline that is based on the philosophy that all body systems are interrelated and dependent upon one another for good health. This philosophy, developed in 1874 by Dr. Andrew Taylor Still, recognizes the concept of “wellness” and the importance of treating illness within the context of the whole body. Special attention is placed on the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.
MSH

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osteopenie

decreased calcification, bone density, or bone mass due to inadequate osteoid synthesis.
CSP

Decreased calcification or density of bone tissue.
NCI

A condition in which there is a lower-than-normal bone mass or bone mineral density (the amount of bone mineral contained in a certain amount of bone). Osteopenia is a less severe form of bone loss than osteoporosis.
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osteopetróza

Excessive formation of dense trabecular bone leading to pathological fractures; OSTEITIS; SPLENOMEGALY with infarct; ANEMIA; and extramedullary hemopoiesis (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
MSH

excessive formation of dense trabecular bone leading to pathological fractures, osteitis, splenomegaly with infarct, anemia, and extramedullary hemopoiesis.
CSP

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osteopoikilóza

An asymptomatic, autosomal dominant trait in which pea-sized sclerotic spots, prominent in the metaphyseal area, are accompanied by unique cutaneous lesions. These are yellowish papules or plaques with increased elastin content. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, pp1434-35)
MSH

A rare autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by the presence of small areas of increased density throughout the bones.
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OSTEOPOROSIA

Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
MSH

loss of bone mass and strength due to nutritional, metabolic, or other factors, usually resulting in deformity or fracture; a major public health problem of the elderly, especially women.
CSP

A condition that is marked by a decrease in bone mass and density, causing bones to become fragile.
NCI

Osteoporosis makes your bones weak and more likely to break. Anyone can develop osteoporosis, but it is common in older women. As many as half of all women and a quarter of men older than 50 will break a bone due to osteoporosis.

Risk factors include

  • Getting older
  • Being small and thin
  • Having a family history of osteoporosis
  • Taking certain medicines
  • Being a white or Asian woman
  • Having osteopenia, which is low bone density

Osteoporosis is a silent disease. You might not know you have it until you break a bone. A bone mineral density test is the best way to check your bone health. To keep bones strong, eat a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D, exercise and do not smoke. If needed, medicines can also help.

NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by reduced bone mass, with a decrease in cortical thickness and in the number and size of the trabeculae of cancellous bone (but normal chemical composition), resulting in increased fracture incidence.
NCI

A condition of reduced bone mass, with decreased cortical thickness and a decrease in the number and size of the trabeculae of cancellous bone (but normal chemical composition), resulting in increased fracture incidence. Osteoporosis is classified as primary (Type 1, postmenopausal osteoporosis; Type 2, age-associated osteoporosis; and idiopathic, which can affect juveniles, premenopausal women, and middle-aged men) and secondary osteoporosis (which results from an identifiable cause of bone mass loss).
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osteoporóza postmenopauzální

Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.
MSH

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osteoradionekróza

Necrosis of bone following radiation injury.
MSH

Necrosis of bone following exposure to a source of radiation.
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osteosarkom

A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
MSH

malignant primary cancer of bone composed of a connective tissue stroma with evidence of malignant osteoid, bone and/or cartilage formation.
CSP

A malignant bone-forming tumor of osteocytes. Osteoid may be present only focally. This term may be used for small biopsy specimens for which adequate tissue is not present for definitive classification.
NCI

A usually aggressive malignant bone-forming mesenchymal tumor, predominantly affecting adolescents and young adults. It usually involves bones and less frequently extraosseous sites. It often involves the long bones (particularly distal femur, proximal tibia, and proximal humerus). Pain with or without a palpable mass is the most frequent clinical symptom. It may spread to other anatomic sites, particularly the lungs.
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osteoskleróza

An abnormal hardening or increased density of bone tissue.
MSH

abnormal hardening or increased density of bone tissue.
CSP

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osteotomie

The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

Surgical cutting or removal of bone.
NCI

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Ostertagia

A genus of parasitic nematodes occurring in the stomach of ruminants.
MSH

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ostertagiáza

A disease of herbivorous mammals, particularly cattle and sheep, caused by stomach worms of the genus OSTERTAGIA.
MSH

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zavedení chirurgických vývodů

Surgical construction of an artificial opening (stoma) for external fistulization of a duct or vessel by insertion of a tube with or without a supportive stent.
MSH

An operation to create an opening (a stoma) from an area inside the body to the outside. Colostomy and urostomy are types of ostomies.
NCI

Sometimes treating diseases of the digestive or urinary systems involves removing all or part of your small intestine, colon, rectum or bladder. In these cases, there must be a new way for wastes to leave the body. The surgery to create the new opening in the abdomen is called ostomy. The opening is called a stoma.

There are many different types of ostomy. Some examples are

  • Ileostomy: The surgeon removes the colon and rectum and attaches the bottom of the small intestine (ileum) to the stoma.
  • Colostomy: The surgeon removes the rectum and attaches the colon to the stoma.
  • Urostomy: The surgeon attaches the ureters – the tubes that carry urine to the bladder – to either the small intestine or to the abdominal wall.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

Surgical construction of an artificial opening in the body
CHV

Surgical creation of an opening in an organ.
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otitida

Inflammation of the ear, which may be marked by pain (EARACHE), fever, HEARING DISORDERS, and VERTIGO. Inflammation of the external ear is OTITIS EXTERNA; of the middle ear, OTITIS MEDIA; of the inner ear, LABYRINTHITIS.
MSH

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KANPOKO OTITISA

Inflammation of the OUTER EAR including the external EAR CANAL, cartilages of the auricle (EAR CARTILAGE), and the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.
MSH

An acute or chronic inflammatory process involving the skin of the outer ear and the ear canal.
NCI

A disorder characterized by inflammation, swelling and redness to the outer ear and ear canal.
NCI

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otitis media

Inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR including the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE.
MSH

inflammation of the middle ear.
CSP

A disorder characterized by inflammation (physiologic response to irritation), swelling and redness to the middle ear.
NCI

An acute or chronic inflammatory process affecting the middle ear.
NCI

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ERDI MAILAKO OTITIS SEROSOA

Inflammation of the middle ear with a clear pale yellow-colored transudate.
MSH

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otitis media hnisavá

Inflammation of the middle ear with purulent discharge.
MSH

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otolaryngologie

A surgical specialty concerned with the study and treatment of disorders of the ear, nose, and throat.
MSH

A medical specialty concerned with the study and treatment of disorders of the ear, nose, and throat.
NCI

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