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paleontologie

The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.
MSH

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paleopatologie

The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.
MSH

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paladium

A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
MSH

chemical element atomic number 46, symbol Pd; a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications.
CSP

An element with atomic symbol Pd, atomic number 46, and atomic weight 106.42.
NCI

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paliativní péče

Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)
MSH

Treatment given to relieve the symptoms and reduce the suffering caused by cancer and other life-threatening diseases. Palliative cancer therapies are given together with other cancer treatments, from the time of diagnosis, through treatment, survivorship, recurrent or advanced disease, and at the end of life.
NCI

Serious illnesses can cause physical symptoms, such as pain, nausea or fatigue. You may also have psychological symptoms like depression or anxiety. The treatments for your disease may cause symptoms or side effects. Palliative care relieves symptoms without curing your disease.

Hospice care, care at the end of life, always includes palliative care. But you may receive palliative care at any stage of a disease. The goal is to make you comfortable and improve your quality of life.


MEDLINEPLUS

The patient- and family-centered active holistic care of patients with advanced, progressive disease. Essential components of palliative care are: pain and symptom control, communication regarding treatment and alternatives, prognosis, and available services, rehabilitation services, care that addresses treatment and palliative concerns, intellectual, emotional, social, and spiritual needs, terminal care, support in bereavement. The goal of palliative care is an achievement of the best quality of life for patients and their families.
NCI

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bledost

A clinical manifestation consisting of an unnatural paleness of the skin.
MSH

An unusual or extreme paleness, state of decreased skin coloration.
NCI

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palmitany

Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid–palmitic acid.
MSH

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kyselina palmitová

A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
MSH

A saturated long-chain fatty acid with a 16-carbon backbone. Palmitic acid is found naturally in palm oil and palm kernel oil, as well as in butter, cheese, milk and meat.
NCI

Saturated fatty acid with 16 carbons.
NCI

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kyseliny palmitové

A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
MSH

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palmitoyl-CoA-hydrolasa

Enzyme catalyzing reversibly the hydrolysis of palmitoyl-CoA or other long-chain acyl coenzyme A compounds to yield CoA and palmitate or other acyl esters. The enzyme is involved in the esterification of fatty acids to form triglycerides. EC 3.1.2.2.
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palmitoylkoenzym A

A fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.
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palmitoylkarnitin

A long-chain fatty acid ester of carnitine which facilitates the transfer of long-chain fatty acids from cytoplasm into mitochondria during the oxidation of fatty acids.
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palpace

Application of fingers with light pressure to the surface of the body to determine consistence of parts beneath in physical diagnosis; includes palpation for determining the outlines of organs.
MSH

see:http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/MBrowser.html
AOT

Examination by pressing on the surface of the body to feel the organs or tissues underneath.
NCI

A method of feeling with the hands during a physical examination. The health care provider touches and feels the patient`s body to examine the size, consistency, texture, location and tenderness of an organ or body part.
NCI

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Palpitace

A disorder characterized by an unpleasant sensation of irregular and/or forceful beating of the heart.
NCI

A rapid or irregular heartbeat that a person can feel.
NCI

An unpleasant sensation of irregular and/or forceful beating of the heart.
NCI

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brožury

Printed publications usually having a format with no binding and no cover and having fewer than some set number of pages. They are often devoted to a single subject.
MSH

A small book, often having a paper cover.
NCI

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Panamerická zdravotnická organizace

WHO regional office for the Americas acting as a coordinating agency for the improvement of health conditions in the hemisphere. The four main functions are: control or eradication of communicable diseases, strengthening of national and local health services, education and training, and research.
MSH

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Panama

A country in Central America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Colombia and Costa Rica. (NCI)
NCI

A country in Central America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Colombia and Costa Rica. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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Pancoastův syndrom

A condition caused by an apical lung tumor (Pancoast tumor) with involvement of the nearby vertebral column and the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Symptoms include pain in the shoulder and the arm, and atrophy of the hand.
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pankreas

A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
MSH

Lobular organ the parenchyma of which consists of glandular acini which communicate via a duct system with the duodenum. Examples: There is only one pancreas.
UWDA

mixed exocrine and endocrine gland situated transversely across the posterior abdominal wall in the epigastric and hypochondriac regions; endocrine portion is comprised of the islets of Langerhans, and the exocrine portion is a compound acinar gland that secretes digestive enzymes.
CSP

Having to do with the pancreas.
NCI

A glandular organ located in the abdomen. It makes pancreatic juices, which contain enzymes that aid in digestion, and it produces several hormones, including insulin. The pancreas is surrounded by the stomach, intestines, and other organs.
NCI

Lobular organ the parenchyma of which consists of glandular acini which communicate via a duct system with the duodenum. Examples: There is only one pancreas.
FMA

An organ behind the lower part of the stomach that is the shape of a fish and about the size of a hand. It is a compound gland composed of both exocrine and endocrine tissues. The endocrine pancreas makes insulin so that the body can use glucose (sugar) for energy. The exocrine pancreas makes enzymes that help the body digest food. Spread all over the pancreas are areas called the Islets of Langerhans. The cells in these areas each have a special purpose. The alpha cells make glucagon, which raises the level of glucose in the blood; the beta cells make insulin; the delta cells make somatostatin. There are also PP cells and D1 cells, about which little is known. (NCI)
NCI

An organ behind the lower part of the stomach that is the shape of a fish and about the size of a hand. It is a compound gland composed of both exocrine and endocrine tissues. The endocrine pancreas makes insulin so that the body can use glucose (sugar) for energy. The exocrine pancreas makes enzymes that help the body digest food. Spread all over the pancreas are areas called the Islets of Langerhans. The cells in these areas each have a special purpose. The alpha cells make glucagon, which raises the level of glucose in the blood; the beta cells make insulin; the delta cells make somatostatin. There are also PP cells and D1 cells, about which little is known. (from Diabetes Dictionary: http://www.childrenwithdiabetes.com/dictionary)
NCI

Of or pertaining to the pancreas.
NCI

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pankreas – transplantace

The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.
MSH

transferring pancreatic cells or tissue, or whole pancreas, within an individual or between individuals of the same or different species; for specific pancreatic islet cells use PANCREATIC ISLET CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
CSP

The pancreas is an organ that makes insulin and enzymes that help the body digest and use food. A pancreas transplant is surgery to place a healthy pancreas from a donor into a person with a diseased pancreas. A common reason for this type of damage is diabetes. Pancreas transplants can enable people with type 1 diabetes to give up insulin shots. An experimental procedure called islet cell transplantation transplants only the parts of the pancreas that make insulin.

People who have transplants must take drugs to keep their body from rejecting the new pancreas for the rest of their lives. They must also have regular follow-up care.


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umělá slinivka

portable or implantable devices for infusion of insulin; includes open-loop systems which may be patient operated or controlled by a preset program and are designed for constant delivery of small quantities of insulin, increased during food ingestion, and closed-loop systems which deliver quantities of insulin automatically based on an electronic glucose sensor.
CSP

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pankreatektomie

Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

surgical removal of the pancreas.
CSP

Surgery to remove all or part of the pancreas. In a total pancreatectomy, part of the stomach, part of the small intestine, the common bile duct, gallbladder, spleen, and nearby lymph nodes also are removed.
NCI

Surgical removal of part or all of the pancreas.
NCI

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buňky vylučující glukagon

A cell in the periphery of the pancreatic islets that secretes glucagon.
NCI

A type of pancreatic cell representing about 5-20% of the islet cells. Alpha cells secrete GLUCAGON.
MSH

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beta-buňky

A cell that composes the bulk of the islets of Langerhans and secretes insulin.
NCI

A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.
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pankreas – cysta

A true cyst of the PANCREAS, distinguished from the much more common PANCREATIC PSEUDOCYST by possessing a lining of mucous EPITHELIUM. Pancreatic cysts are categorized as congenital, retention, neoplastic, parasitic, enterogenous, or dermoid. Congenital cysts occur more frequently as solitary cysts but may be multiple. Retention cysts are gross enlargements of PANCREATIC DUCTS secondary to ductal obstruction. (From Bockus Gastroenterology, 4th ed, p4145)
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nemoci slinivky břišní

Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.
MSH

The pancreas is a gland behind your stomach and in front of your spine. It produces juices that help break down food and hormones that help control blood sugar levels. Problems with the pancreas can lead to many health problems. These include

  • Pancreatitis, or inflammation of the pancreas: This happens when digestive enzymes start digesting the pancreas itself
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Cystic fibrosis, a genetic disorder in which thick, sticky mucus can also block tubes in your pancreas

The pancreas also plays a role in diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the beta cells of the pancreas no longer make insulin because the body`s immune system has attacked them. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas loses the ability to secrete enough insulin in response to meals.


MEDLINEPLUS

A non-neoplastic or neoplastic disorder that affects the pancreas. Representative examples of non-neoplastic disorders include pancreatitis and cystic fibrosis. Representative examples of neoplastic disorders include cystadenomas, carcinomas, lymphomas, and neuroendocrine neoplasms.
NCI

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pankreas – vývody

Ducts that collect PANCREATIC JUICE from the PANCREAS and supply it to the DUODENUM.
MSH

main excretory duct of the pancreas, which usually unites with the common bile duct before entering the duodenum.
CSP

Part of a system of ducts in the pancreas. Pancreatic juices containing enzymes are released into these ducts and flow into the small intestine.
NCI

Ducts that collect pancreatic juice from thepancreas and supply it to the duodenum. (MeSH)
NCI

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pankreatické extrakty

Extracts prepared from pancreatic tissue that may contain the pancreatic enzymes or other specific uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific activities. PANCREATIN is a specific extract containing digestive enzymes and used to treat pancreatic insufficiency.
MSH

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pankreas – píštěl

Abnormal passage communicating with the PANCREAS.
MSH

An abnormal communication between the pancreas and another organ or cavity.
NCI

A disorder characterized by an abnormal communication between the pancreas and another organ or anatomic site.
NCI

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pankreas – funkční testy

Tests based on the biochemistry and physiology of the exocrine pancreas and involving analysis of blood, duodenal contents, feces, or urine for products of pancreatic secretion.
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pankreatické hormony

Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.
MSH

peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the pancreatic islets: alpha cells secrete glucagon; beta cells secrete insulin; delta cells secrete somatostatin; and PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.
CSP

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