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pankreatická šťáva

The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.
MSH

thick transparent fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.
CSP

Fluid made by the pancreas. Pancreatic juices contain proteins called enzymes that aid in digestion.
NCI

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nádory slinivky břišní

Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
MSH

new abnormal pancreatic tissue that grows by excessive cellular division and proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease.
CSP

A benign or malignant neoplasm involving the pancreas.
NCI

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pankreatický polypeptid

A 36-amino acid pancreatic hormone that is secreted mainly by endocrine cells found at the periphery of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS and adjacent to cells containing SOMATOSTATIN and GLUCAGON. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP), when administered peripherally, can suppress gastric secretion, gastric emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and appetite. A lack of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been associated with OBESITY in rats and mice.
MSH

A small protein made by the pancreas that helps control the release of other substances made by the pancreas. The amount of pancreatic polypeptide in the blood increases after a person eats. It may also increase with age, and in certain diseases, such as diabetes and pancreatic cancer.
NCI

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pankreas – pseudocysta

Cyst-like space not lined by EPITHELIUM and contained within the PANCREAS. Pancreatic pseudocysts account for most of the cystic collections in the pancreas and are often associated with chronic PANCREATITIS.
MSH

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pankreatojejunostomie

Surgical anastomosis of the pancreatic duct, or the divided end of the transected pancreas, with the jejunum. (Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

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pankreatin

A mammalian pancreatic extract composed of enzymes with protease, amylase and lipase activities. It is used as a digestant in pancreatic malfunction.
MSH

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pankreatitida

INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.
MSH

acute or chronic inflammation of the pancreas due to autodigestion of pancreatic tissue by its own enzymes.
CSP

Inflammation of the pancreas. Chronic pancreatitis may cause diabetes and problems with digestion. Pain is the primary symptom.
NCI

A disorder characterized by inflammation of the pancreas.
NCI

The pancreas is a large gland behind the stomach and close to the first part of the small intestine. It secretes digestive juices into the small intestine through a tube called the pancreatic duct. The pancreas also releases the hormones insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream.

Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. It happens when digestive enzymes start digesting the pancreas itself. Pancreatitis can be acute or chronic. Either form is serious and can lead to complications.

Acute pancreatitis occurs suddenly and usually goes away in a few days with treatment. It is often caused by gallstones. Common symptoms are severe pain in the upper abdomen, nausea, and vomiting. Treatment is usually a few days in the hospital for intravenous (IV) fluids, antibiotics, and medicines to relieve pain.

Chronic pancreatitis does not heal or improve. It gets worse over time and leads to permanent damage. The most common cause is heavy alcohol use. Other causes include cystic fibrosis and other inherited disorders, high levels of calcium or fats in the blood, some medicines, and autoimmune conditions. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and oily stools. Treatment may also be a few days in the hospital for intravenous (IV) fluids, medicines to relieve pain, and nutritional support. After that, you may need to start taking enzymes and eat a special diet. It is also important to not smoke or drink alcohol.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

Inflammation of the pancreas.
NCI

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pankreatická elastasa

A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC 3.4.21.36.
MSH

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pankuronium

A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than CURARE but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.
MSH

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Pancuronium Bromide

The bromide salt form of pancuronium, a synthetic, long-acting ammonio steroid muscle relaxant with curarimimetic, some antimuscarinic and sympathomimetic effects. Pancuronium bromide competitively binds to the nicotinic receptor at the neuromuscular junction, thereby preventing acetylcholine binding and resulting in skeletal muscle relaxation and paralysis.
NCI

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pancytopenie

Deficiency of all three cell elements of the blood, erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets.
MSH

The inability of the bone marrow to produce hematopoietic elements.
NCI

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panika

A state of extreme acute, intense anxiety and unreasoning fear accompanied by disorganization of personality function.
MSH

Sudden extreme anxiety or fear that may cause irrational thoughts or actions. Panic may include rapid heart rate, flushing (a hot, red face), sweating, and trouble breathing.
NCI

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panická porucha

A type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected panic attacks that last minutes or, rarely, hours. Panic attacks begin with intense apprehension, fear or terror and, often, a feeling of impending doom. Symptoms experienced during a panic attack include dyspnea or sensations of being smothered; dizziness, loss of balance or faintness; choking sensations; palpitations or accelerated heart rate; shakiness; sweating; nausea or other form of abdominal distress; depersonalization or derealization; paresthesias; hot flashes or chills; chest discomfort or pain; fear of dying and fear of not being in control of oneself or going crazy. Agoraphobia may also develop. Similar to other anxiety disorders, it may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.
MSH

specific psychological phenomenon characterized by sudden onset of anxiety (often unrelated to objective events), accompanied by autonomic symptoms such as tachycardia, paresthesia, flushing, and sweating.
CSP

Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder. It causes panic attacks, which are sudden feelings of terror for no reason. You may also feel physical symptoms, such as

  • Fast heartbeat
  • Chest pain
  • Breathing difficulty
  • Dizziness

Panic attacks can happen anytime, anywhere and without warning. You may live in fear of another attack and may avoid places where you have had an attack. For some people, fear takes over their lives and they cannot leave their homes.

Panic disorder is more common in women than men. It usually starts when people are young adults. Sometimes it starts when a person is under a lot of stress. Most people get better with treatment. Therapy can show you how to recognize and change your thinking patterns before they lead to panic. Medicines can also help.

NIH: National Institute of Mental Health


MEDLINEPLUS

An anxiety disorder characterized by multiple unexpected panic attacks with persistent concern of recurring attacks. Panic disorder may or may not be accompanied by agoraphobia.
NCI

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panniculitis

General term for inflammation of adipose tissue, usually of the skin, characterized by reddened subcutaneous nodules.
MSH

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lupus erythematosus s panikulitidou

A type of lupus erythematosus characterized by deep dermal or subcutaneous nodules, most often on the head, face, or upper arms. It is generally chronic and occurs most often in women between the ages of 20 and 45.
MSH

Lupus erythematosus primarily affecting the subcutaneous adipose tissues.
NCI

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panniculitis nodularis nonsuppurativa

A form of panniculitis characterized by recurrent episodes of fever accompanied by the eruption of single or multiple erythematous subcutaneous nodules on the lower extremities. They normally resolve, but tend to leave depressions in the skin. The condition is most often seen in women, alone or in association with other disorders.
MSH

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panniculitis peritonealis

INFLAMMATION of the underlying layer of ADIPOSE TISSUE (panniculus) of the PERITONEUM, usually of the MESENTERY or the OMENTUM. There are several forms with various names and are usually characterized by infiltration of LYMPHOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS, fat NECROSIS, and FIBROSIS.
MSH

A disorder characterized by chronic inflammation and fibrosis of the adipose tissues in the peritoneal cavity.
NCI

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panoftalmitida

Acute suppurative inflammation of the inner eye with necrosis of the sclera (and sometimes the cornea) and extension of the inflammation into the orbit. Pain may be severe and the globe may rupture. In endophthalmitis the globe does not rupture.
MSH

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Panstrongylus

A genus of cone-nosed bugs of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Its species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
MSH

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pantethein

An intermediate in the pathway of coenzyme A formation in mammalian liver and some microorganisms.
MSH

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kyselina pantothenová

A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.
MSH

A water-soluble vitamin ubiquitously found in plants and animal tissues with antioxidant property. Vitamin B5 is a component of coenzyme A (CoA) and a part of the vitamin B2 complex. Vitamin B5 is a growth factor and is essential for various metabolic functions, including the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fatty acids. This vitamin is also involved in the synthesis of cholesterol, lipids, neurotransmitters, steroid hormones, and hemoglobin.
NCI

Water-soluble vitamin that is a component of coenzyme A and phosphopantetheine, which are involved in fatty acid metabolism. (DRI)
NCI

A nutrient in the vitamin B complex that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Pantothenic acid helps some enzymes use foods and make many substances used in the body and protects cells against damage from peroxides. It is found in almost all plant and animal foods. Pantothenic acid is water-soluble (can dissolve in water) and must be taken in every day.
NCI

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panuveitida

Inflammation in which both the anterior and posterior segments of the uvea are involved and a specific focus is not apparent. It is often severe and extensive and a serious threat to vision. Causes include systemic diseases such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, and syphilis, as well as malignancies. The intermediate segment of the eye is not involved.
MSH

A disorder characterized by inflammation of the entire uvea which includes the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. Causes include systemic infections, sarcoidosis, and cancers.
NCI

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papain

A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC 3.4.22.2.
MSH

Enzyme preparations are products that are used in the histopathology laboratory for the following purposes: (1) To disaggregate tissues and cells already in established cultures for preparation into subsequent cultures (e.g., trypsin); (2) To disaggregate fluid specimens for cytological examination (e.g., papain for gastric lavage or trypsin for sputum liquefaction); (3) To aid in the selective staining of tissue specimens (e.g., diastase for glycogen determination).
SPN

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Papaver

A genus of Eurasian herbaceous plants, the poppies (family PAPAVERACEAE of the dicotyledon class Magnoliopsida), that yield OPIUM from the latex of the unripe seed pods.
MSH

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papaverin

An alkaloid found in opium but not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in its structure or pharmacological actions. It is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of impotence and as a vasodilator, especially for cerebral vasodilation. The mechanism of its pharmacological actions is not clear, but it apparently can inhibit phosphodiesterases and it may have direct actions on calcium channels.
MSH

opium alkaloid used as a smooth muscle relaxant and weak analgesic.
CSP

An opiate alkaloid isolated from the plant Papaver somniferum and produced synthetically. As a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant, papaverine is not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in structure or pharmacological actions; its mechanism of action may involve the non-selective inhibition of phosphodiesterases and direct inhibition of calcium channels. This agent also exhibits antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus, cytomegalovirus, and HIV. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39545&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39545&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C726″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

An opiate alkaloid isolated from the plant Papaver somniferum and produced synthetically. As a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant, papaverine is not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in structure or pharmacological actions; its mechanism of action may involve the non-selective inhibition of phosphodiesterases and direct inhibition of calcium channels. This agent also exhibits antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus, cytomegalovirus, and HIV. (NCI04)
NCI

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papilární svaly

conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.
CSP

Region of myocardium which is continuous with the chorda tendinea and the wall of heart.
FMA

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papiledém

Swelling of the OPTIC DISK, usually in association with increased intracranial pressure, characterized by hyperemia, blurring of the disk margins, microhemorrhages, blind spot enlargement, and engorgement of retinal veins. Chronic papilledema may cause OPTIC ATROPHY and visual loss. (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p175)
MSH

swelling of the optic disk, usually in association with increased intracranial pressure, characterized by hyperemia, blurring of the disk margins, microhemorrhages, blind spot enlargement, and engorgement of retinal veins.
CSP

Swelling around the optic disk, the area where the optic nerve (the nerve that carries messages from the eye to the brain) enters the eyeball. Papilledema occurs when increased brain pressure caused by tumors or other problems results in swelling of the optic nerve.
NCI

A disorder characterized by swelling around the optic disc.
NCI

Swelling around the optic disc, usually due to increased intracranial pressure or pressure on the optic nerve by a tumor.
NCI

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papilom

A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
MSH

A benign epithelial neoplasm that projects above the surrounding epithelial surface and consists of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma.
NCI

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Papilloom, Shope

papillomatous growth found in wild cottontail rabbits that is caused by a virus in the family Papovaviridae and can be transferred to domestic rabbits where it will cause similar growths; marked by the formation of horny warts, a high percentage of these growths may become malignant.
CSP

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Papillomavirus

cause proliferation of epithelium of skin or mucous membranes; usually are host specific; have been isolated from humans, cattle, deer, dogs, goats, horses, rats, and sheep.
CSP

A genus of viruses (family Papovaviridae) containing DNA, having virions about 55 nm in diameter, and including the papilloma and warts viruses of man and other animals, some of which are associated with inductions of carcinoma.
NCI

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