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parasympatický nervový systém

The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
MSH

craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system; generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system; cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord; they synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs.
CSP

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parasympatolytika

Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.
MSH

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parasympatomimetika

Drugs that mimic the effects of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). Drugs that stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons (GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS) are not included here.
MSH

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parathion

A highly toxic cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.
MSH

agricultural insecticide highly toxic to humans and animals.
CSP

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paratyreoidea – nemoci

Pathological processes of the PARATHYROID GLANDS. They usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.
MSH

deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of the parathyroid gland.
CSP

Most people have four pea-sized glands, called parathyroid glands, on the thyroid gland in the neck. Though their names are similar, the thyroid and parathyroid glands are completely different. The parathyroid glands make parathyroid hormone (PTH), which helps your body keep the right balance of calcium and phosphorous.

If your parathyroid glands make too much or too little hormone, it disrupts this balance. If they secrete extra PTH, you have hyperparathyroidism, and your blood calcium rises. In many cases, a benign tumor on a parathyroid gland makes it overactive. Or, the extra hormones can come from enlarged parathyroid glands. Very rarely, the cause is cancer.

If you do not have enough PTH, you have hypoparathyroidism. Your blood will have too little calcium and too much phosphorous. Causes include injury to the glands, endocrine disorders or genetic conditions. Treatment is aimed at restoring the balance of calcium and phosphorous.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

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paratyreoidea

Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.
MSH

small paired endocrine glands in the region of the thyroid gland which secrete parathyroid hormone and are concerned with the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus.
CSP

One of two small paired endocrine glands, superior and inferior, usually found embedded in the connective tissue capsule on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland; these glands secrete parathyroid hormone that regulates the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus. The parenchyma is composed of chief and oxyphilic cells arranged in anastomosing cords.
NCI

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parathormon

polypeptide hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands which maintains intracellular calcium levels in the body; parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of calcium from bone, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
CSP

Encoded by human PTH Gene (Parathyroid Hormone Family), secreted (parathyroid cells) 115-aa 13-kDa (precursor) Parathyroid Hormone elevates blood Ca2+ levels by dissolving the salts in bone and preventing renal excretion. PTH defects cause familial isolated hypoparathyroidism. (NCI) Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=489119&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=489119&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C41027″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
MSH

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paratyreoidea – nádory

Tumors or cancer of the PARATHYROID GLANDS.
MSH

new abnormal parathyroid tissue that grows by excessive cellular division and proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease.
CSP

A benign or malignant neoplasm affecting the parathyroid glands. (NCI05)
NCI

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paratuberkulóza

A chronic GASTROENTERITIS in RUMINANTS caused by MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSPECIES PARATUBERCULOSIS.
MSH

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paratyfus

A prolonged febrile illness commonly caused by several Paratyphi serotypes of SALMONELLA ENTERICA. It is similar to TYPHOID FEVER but less severe.
MSH

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virus paravakcínie

A species of PARAPOXVIRUS causing a pox-like disease on udders of cows that may spread to milkers.
MSH

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nucleus hypothalamicus paraventricularis

Nucleus in the anterior part of the hypothalamus.
MSH

one of the magnocellular hypothalamic nuclei, an elongated plate of large, deeply staining cells located close to the third ventricle in the anterior hypothalamic area; major source of oxytocin and to a lesser extent, of antidiuretic hormone, neurohormones, which are carried to the neurohypophysis along the paraventriculohypophysial tract.
CSP

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vztahy mezi rodiči a dětmi

The interactions between parent and child.
MSH

relationships and behaviors of father and mother with a child; including biological, adopted or step children.
CSP

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informování rodičů

Reporting to parents or guardians about care to be provided to a minor (MINORS).
MSH

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parenterální výživa

The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).
MSH

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parenterální výživa úplná

The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.
MSH

A form of nutrition that is delivered into a vein. Total parenteral nutrition does not use the digestive system. It may be given to people who are unable to absorb nutrients through the intestinal tract because of vomiting that won`t stop, severe diarrhea, or intestinal disease. It may also be given to those undergoing high-dose chemotherapy or radiation and bone marrow transplantation. It is possible to give all of the protein, calories, vitamins and minerals a person needs using total parenteral nutrition.
NCI

Total parenteral nutrition formulated for intravenous administration in patients who cannot eat or cannot get enough nutrients from the foods they eat. It is a liquid mixture of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals and other nutrients.
NCI

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rodiče

Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
MSH

persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute mother or father.
CSP

One that begets or brings forth offspring or a person who brings up and cares for for another (Webster`s Collegiate Dictionary)


HL7V3.0

A mother or a father; an immediate progenitor.
NCI

A mother or a father.
NCI

one that begets or brings forth offspring or a person who brings up and cares for another (Webster`s Collegiate Dictionary)


HL7V3.0

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paréza

A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). “General paresis” and “general paralysis” may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.
MSH

A slight or incomplete paralysis.
NCI

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parestézie

Subjective cutaneous sensations (e.g., cold, warmth, tingling, pressure, etc.) that are experienced spontaneously in the absence of stimulation.
MSH

A disorder characterized by functional disturbances of sensory neurons resulting in abnormal cutaneous sensations of tingling, numbness, pressure, cold, and warmth that are experienced in the absence of a stimulus.
NCI

Abnormal touch sensations, such as burning or prickling, that occur without an outside stimulus.
NCI

Abnormal cutaneous sensations of tingling, numbness, pressure, cold, and warmth that an individual experiences without the presence of a stimulus. It results from functional disturbances of sensory neurons. Causes include peripheral vascular disease, peripheral neuropathy, and nerve damage.
NCI

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pargylin

A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.
MSH

A monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor with antidepressant activity. Pargyline selectively inhibits MAO type B, an enzyme catalyzing the oxidative deamination and inactivation of certain catecholamines, such as norepinephrine and dopamine, within the presynaptic nerve terminals. By inhibiting the metabolism of these biogenic amines in the brain, pargyline increases their concentration and binding to postsynaptic receptors. Increased receptor stimulation may cause downregulation of central receptors which may attribute to pargyline`s antidepressant effect.
NCI

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temenní kost

One of two cranial bones that by their union form the sides and roof of the skull.
NCI

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žaludeční parietální buňky

Rounded or pyramidal cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS. They secrete HYDROCHLORIC ACID and produce gastric intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein that binds VITAMIN B12.
MSH

Cells of the gastric glands which secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor. (MeSH)
NCI

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parietální lalok

Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere.
MSH

Parietal lobe is the one of five lobes of the cerebral hemisphere which occupies the dorsal-posterior portion of the hemisphere. It is bounded by the central sulcus on its anterior border and and by the longitudinal cerebral fissure on its medial border. Posteriorly it shares an arbitrary border with the occipital lobe.
FMA

One of the lobes of the cerebral hemisphere located superiorly to the occipital lobe and posteriorly to the frontal lobe. Cognition and visuospatial processing are its main function. (NCI)
NCI

One of the lobes of the cerebral hemisphere located superiorly to the occipital lobe and posteriorly to the frontal lobe. Cognition and visuospatial processing are its main functions.
NCI

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parita

The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
MSH

condition of a female with respect to her having borne viable offspring.
CSP

The number of live-born children a woman has delivered.
NCI

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parkoviště

Indoor or outdoor areas designated for the parking of vehicles.
MSH

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Parkinsonova nemoc

A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
MSH

progressive, degenerative disorder of the nervous system characterized by tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability, and gait abnormalities; caused by a loss of neurons and a decrease of dopamine in the basal ganglia.
CSP

A progressive disorder of the nervous system marked by muscle tremors, muscle rigidity, decreased mobility, stooped posture, slow voluntary movements, and a mask-like facial expression.
NCI

Parkinson`s disease is a disorder that affects nerve cells, or neurons, in a part of the brain that controls muscle movement. In Parkinson`s, neurons that make a chemical called dopamine die or do not work properly. Dopamine normally sends signals that help coordinate your movements. No one knows what damages these cells. Symptoms of Parkinson`s disease may include

  • Trembling of hands, arms, legs, jaw and face
  • Stiffness of the arms, legs and trunk
  • Slowness of movement
  • Poor balance and coordination

As symptoms get worse, people with the disease may have trouble walking, talking or doing simple tasks. They may also have problems such as depression, sleep problems or trouble chewing, swallowing or speaking.

Parkinson`s usually begins around age 60, but it can start earlier. It is more common in men than in women. There is no cure for Parkinson`s disease. A variety of medicines sometimes help symptoms dramatically.


MEDLINEPLUS

A progressive degenerative disorder of the central nervous system characterized by loss of dopamine producing neurons in the substantia nigra and the presence of Lewy bodies in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus. Signs and symptoms include tremor which is most pronounced during rest, muscle rigidity, slowing of the voluntary movements, a tendency to fall back, and a mask-like facial expression.
NCI

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Parkinsonova nemoc postencefalitická

Parkinsonism following encephalitis, historically seen as a sequella of encephalitis lethargica (Von Economo Encephalitis). The early age of onset, the rapid progression of symptoms followed by stabilization, and the presence of a variety of other neurological disorders (e.g., sociopathic behavior; TICS; MUSCLE SPASMS; oculogyric crises; hyperphagia; and bizarre movements) distinguish this condition from primary PARKINSON DISEASE. Pathologic features include neuronal loss and gliosis concentrated in the MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMUS; and HYPOTHALAMUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p754)
MSH

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Parkinsonova nemoc sekundární

Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)
MSH

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paromomycin

An oligosaccharide antibiotic produced by various STREPTOMYCES.
MSH

An aminoglycoside antibiotic derived from Streptomyces rimosus var. paromomycinus, with amebicidal and antibacterial activity. Paromomycin binds specifically to the RNA oligonucleotide at the A site of bacterial 30S ribosomes, thereby causing misreading and premature termination of translation, thereby leading to inhibition of protein synthesis followed by cell death.
NCI

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paronychie

An inflammatory reaction involving the folds of the skin surrounding the fingernail. It is characterized by acute or chronic purulent, tender, and painful swellings of the tissues around the nail, caused by an abscess of the nail fold. The pathogenic yeast causing paronychia is most frequently Candida albicans. Saprophytic fungi may also be involved. The causative bacteria are usually Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or Streptococcus. (Andrews` Diseases of the Skin, 8th ed, p271)
MSH

An acute or chronic infection of the soft tissues around the nail. Symptoms include pain, tenderness, erythema, and swelling around the nail. Acute infection results from minor trauma to the fingertip and Staphylococcus aureus is usually the causative agent. Chronic infection is usually caused by Candida albicans.
NCI

A disorder characterized by an infectious process involving the soft tissues around the nail.
NCI

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