Additional pages

pánev – infekce

Infection involving the tissues or organs in the PELVIS.
MSH

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pánev – nádory

Tumors or cancer of the pelvic region.
MSH

new abnormal tissue of the pelvic region that grows by excessive cellular division and proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease.
CSP

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pánevní bolest

Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508)
MSH

A disorder characterized by marked discomfort sensation in the pelvis.
NCI

Painful sensation in the pelvis.
NCI

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pelvimetrie

Measurement of the dimensions and capacity of the pelvis. It includes cephalopelvimetry (measurement of fetal head size in relation to maternal pelvic capacity), a prognostic guide to the management of LABOR, OBSTETRIC associated with disproportion.
MSH

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pánev

The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.
MSH

Subdivision of trunk, which is demarcated from the abdomen by the plane of the superior pelvic aperture, and from the perineum by the inferior surface of the pelvic diaphragm; together with the thorax, abdomen, and perineum, it constitutes the trunk. Examples: There is only one pelvis.
UWDA

inferior portion of the trunk of the body, bounded by the two hip bones, the sacrum and the coccyx.
CSP

The lower part of the abdomen, located between the hip bones.
NCI

Subdivision of abdomen, which is demarcated from the abdomen proper by the plane of the superior pelvic aperture, and from the perineum by the inferior surface of the pelvic diaphragm; together with the abdomen proper, it constitutes the abdomen. Examples: There is only one pelvis.
FMA

The bony, basin-shaped structure formed by the hipbones and the base of the backbone supporting the lower limbs in humans.
NCI

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pemolin

A central nervous system stimulant used in fatigue and depressive states and to treat hyperkinetic disorders in children.
MSH

An oxazolidine compound with central nervous system (CNS) stimulant property. Although pemoline has pharmacological activity similar to other CNS stimulants, the exact mechanism and site of action are unknown. This agent has minimal sympathomimetic properties, but animal studies indicate it may work through dopaminergic mechanisms. Pemoline has been withdrawn from the U.S. market because of the agent`s association with life threatening hepatic failure.
NCI

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pemfigoid sliznice benigní

A chronic blistering disease with predilection for mucous membranes and less frequently the skin, and with a tendency to scarring. It is sometimes called ocular pemphigoid because of conjunctival mucous membrane involvement.
MSH

A chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by the development of blisters and ulcers in mucous membranes. It affects most often the gums, eyelids and genital mucosa sites.
NCI

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pemfigoid bulózní

A chronic and relatively benign subepidermal blistering disease usually of the elderly and without histopathologic acantholysis.
MSH

An autoimmune chronic skin disorder characterized by the presence of large blisters. It usually affects elderly people and tends to subside spontaneously.
NCI

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pemfigus

group of chronic blistering diseases characterized histologically by acantholysis and blister formation within the epidermis.
CSP

Pemphigus is an autoimmune disorder in which your antibodies attack healthy cells in your skin and mouth, causing blisters and sores. No one knows what causes this attack. Pemphigus does not spread from person to person. It does not appear to be inherited. But some people`s genes put them more at risk for pemphigus.

Pemphigoid is also an autoimmune skin disease. It leads to deep blisters that do not break easily. Pemphigoid is most common in older adults and may be fatal.

The treatment of pemphigus and pemphigoid is the same: one or more medicines. These may include

  • Steroids, which reduce inflammation
  • Drugs that suppress the immune system response
  • Antibiotics to treat associated infections

NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

An autoimmune blistering skin disorder. Morphologically it is characterized by acantholysis and intraepidermal blister formation.
NCI

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pempidin

A nicotinic antagonist most commonly used as an experimental tool. It has been used as a ganglionic blocker in the treatment of hypertension but has largely been supplanted for that purpose by more specific drugs.
MSH

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penbutolol

A nonselective beta-blocker used as an antihypertensive and an antianginal agent.
MSH

A lipophilic, nonselective beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist with anti-anginal and antihypertensive activities. Penbutolol competitively binds to and blocks beta-1 adrenergic receptors in the heart, thereby decreasing cardiac contractility and rate. This leads to a reduction in cardiac output and lowers blood pressure. In addition, penbutolol prevents the release of renin, a hormone secreted by the kidneys that causes constriction of blood vessels.
NCI

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penfluridol

One of the long-acting ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS used for maintenance or long-term therapy of SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS.
MSH

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penicilamin

3-Mercapto-D-valine. The most characteristic degradation product of the penicillin antibiotics. It is used as an antirheumatic and as a chelating agent in Wilson`s disease.
MSH

beta dimethyl analog of cysteine; USP lists as a chelating agent.
CSP

A drug that removes copper from the body and is used to treat diseases in which there is an excess of this metal. It is also being studied as a possible angiogenesis inhibitor in brain tumors.
NCI

A beta dimethyl analog of the amino acid cysteine. As a degradation product of penicillin antibiotics, penicillamine chelates with heavy metals and increases their urinary excretion. Possessing antineoplastic properties, penicillamine induces apoptosis by a p53-mediated mechanism and inhibits angiogenesis by chelating with copper, a cofactor for angiogenesis. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42546&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42546&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C729″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A beta dimethyl analog of the amino acid cysteine. As a degradation product of penicillin antibiotics, penicillamine chelates with heavy metals and increases their urinary excretion. Possessing antineoplastic properties, penicillamine induces apoptosis by a p53-mediated mechanism and inhibits angiogenesis by chelating with copper, a cofactor for angiogenesis. (NCI04)
NCI

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kyselina penicilanová

A building block of penicillin, devoid of significant antibacterial activity. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
MSH

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kyselina penicilová

A mycotoxin with antibiotic and carcinogenic activity produced by various strains of PENICILLIUM and ASPERGILLUS. It has been found in tobacco, sausages, and corn.
MSH

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penicilinamidasa

An enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of penicillin to penicin and a carboxylic acid anion. EC 3.5.1.11.
MSH

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penicilin G

A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.
MSH

A broad-spectrum, beta-lactam naturally occurring penicillin antibiotic with antibacterial activity. Penicillin G binds to and inactivates the penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This interrupts bacterial cell wall synthesis and results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and eventually causing cell lysis.
NCI

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benzathin-penicilin G

The long-acting benzathine salt form of penicillin G, a broad-spectrum penicillin antibiotic. Penicillin G benzathine binds to penicillin binding proteins (PBP), the enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of peptidoglycan, a critical component of the bacterial cell wall. This leads to the interruption of cell wall synthesis, consequently leading to bacterial cell growth inhibition and cell lysis.
NCI

Semisynthetic antibiotic prepared by combining the sodium salt of penicillin G with N,N`-dibenzylethylenediamine.
MSH

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prokain-penicilin G

Semisynthetic antibiotic prepared by combining penicillin G with PROCAINE.
MSH

The procaine salt form of penicillin G, a broad-spectrum, beta-lactam, naturally occurring penicillin antibiotic with antibacterial activity. Penicillin G binds to and inactivates the penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This interrupts bacterial cell wall synthesis and results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall, eventually causing cell lysis.
NCI

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penicilin – rezistence

Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
MSH

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V-penicilin

A broad-spectrum penicillin antibiotic used orally in the treatment of mild to moderate infections by susceptible gram-positive organisms.
MSH

A member of the penicillin family exhibiting broad-spectrum antibiotic property. Penicillin V binds to penicillin binding proteins (PBP), the enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of peptidoglycan, which is a critical component of the bacterial cell wall. This leads to the interruption of cell wall synthesis, consequently leading to bacterial cell growth inhibition and cell lysis.
NCI

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penicilinasa

A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.
MSH

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peniciliny

A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman`s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
MSH

group of natural or semisynthetic antibacterial antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group; they exert a bacteriocidal as well as bacteriostatic effect on susceptible bacteria by interfering with the final stages of the synthesis of cell wall peptidoglycan.
CSP

A drug that is used to treat infection. It belongs to the family of drugs called antibiotics.
NCI

Any beta-lactam antibiotic derived from Pencillium fungi with bactericidal activity. Penicillin antibiotics bind to and inactivate penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This interrupts bacterial cell wall synthesis and results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall, eventually causing cell lysis.
NCI

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Penicillium

A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.
MSH

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Penicillium chrysogenum

A mitosporic fungal species used in the production of penicillin.
MSH

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penis – nemoci

Pathological processes involving the PENIS or its component tissues.
MSH

condition in which there is a deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of the penis.
CSP

Problems with the penis can cause pain and affect a man`s sexual function and fertility. Penis disorders include

  • Erectile dysfunction – inability to get or keep an erection
  • Priapism – a painful erection that does not go away
  • Peyronie`s disease – bending of the penis during an erection due to a hard lump called a plaque
  • Balanitis – inflammation of the skin covering the head of the penis, most often in men and boys who have not been circumcised
  • Penile cancer – a rare form of cancer, highly curable when caught early


MEDLINEPLUS

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penis – erekce

The state of the PENIS when the erectile tissue becomes filled or swollen (tumid) with BLOOD and causes the penis to become rigid and elevated. It is a complex process involving CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS; HORMONES; SMOOTH MUSCLES; and vascular functions.
MSH

physiological response of penile erectile tissue engorging with blood due to male sexual arousal.
CSP

The hardening, enlarging and rising of the penis which often occurs in the sexually aroused male and enables sexual intercourse. Achieved by increased inflow of blood into the vessels of erectile tissue, and decreased outflow. [GOC:jl, Wikipedia:Penile_erection]
GO

In medicine, the swelling of the penis with blood, causing it to become firm.
NCI

The hardening, enlarging and rising of the penis which often occurs in the sexually aroused male.
NCI

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penis – indurace

A condition characterized by hardening of the PENIS due to the formation of fibrous plaques on the dorsolateral aspect of the PENIS, usually involving the membrane (tunica albuginea) surrounding the erectile tissue (corpus cavernosum penis). This may eventually cause a painful deformity of the shaft or constriction of the urethra, or both.
MSH

Fibromatosis arising from the soft tissues of the penis. It is characterized by the presence of spindle-shaped fibroblasts, and an infiltrative growth pattern. It causes the penis to bend when it becomes erect.
NCI

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penis – nádory

Cancers or tumors of the PENIS or of its component tissues.
MSH

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penis – protézy

Rigid, semi-rigid, or inflatable cylindric hydraulic devices, with either combined or separate reservoir and pumping systems, implanted for the surgical treatment of organic ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.
MSH

A penile rigidity implant is a device that consists of a single semi-rigid rod or a pair of semi-rigid rods implanted in the penis to provide rigidity. It is used in the treatment of erectile impotence.
SPN

A firm rod or inflatable device that is placed in the penis (an external male reproductive organ) during a surgical procedure. The implant makes it possible to have and keep an erection. Penile implants are used to treat erectile dysfunction or impotence.
NCI

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