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fenylethylmalonamid

A metabolite of primidone.
MSH

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fenylglyoxal

A reagent that is highly selective for the modification of arginyl residues. It is used to selectively inhibit various enzymes and acts as an energy transfer inhibitor in photophosphorylation.
MSH

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phenylhydrazine

diazo derivative of aniline used as a reagent for sugars, ketones and aldehydes.
CSP

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fenylhydraziny

Diazo derivatives of aniline, used as a reagent for sugars, ketones, and aldehydes. (Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

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fenylisopropyladenosin

N-Isopropyl-N-phenyl-adenosine. Antilipemic agent. Synonym: TH 162.
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fenylketonurie

A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).
MSH

group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme phenylaline hydroxylase or less frequently by reduced activity of dihydropteridine reductase.
CSP

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic disorder in which the body can`t process part of a protein called phenylalanine (Phe). Phe is in almost all foods. If the Phe level gets too high, it can damage the brain and cause severe mental retardation. All babies born in U.S. hospitals must now have a screening test for PKU. This makes it easier to diagnose and treat the problem early.

The best treatment for PKU is a diet of low-protein foods. There are special formulas for newborns. For older children and adults, the diet includes many fruits and vegetables. It also includes some low-protein breads, pastas and cereals. Nutritional formulas provide the vitamins and minerals they can`t get from their food.

Babies who get on this special diet soon after they are born develop normally. Many have no symptoms of PKU. It is important that they stay on the diet for the rest of their lives.

NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by the body`s inability to break down and utilize the essential amino acid phenylalanine.
NCI

A genetic disorder in which the body lacks the enzyme necessary to metabolize phenylalanine
CHV

An inherited disorder that causes a build-up of phenylalanine (an amino acid) in the blood. This can cause mental retardation, behavioral and movement problems, seizures, and delayed development. Using a blood test, PKU can easily be found in newborns, and treatment is a diet low in phenylalanine.
NCI

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octan fenylrtuťnatý

A phenyl mercury compound used mainly as a fungicide. Has also been used as a herbicide, slimicide, and bacteriocide.
MSH

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fenylrtuťné sloučeniny

Organic mercury compounds in which the mercury is attached to a phenyl group. Often used as fungicides and seed treatment agents.
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fenylmethylsulfonylfluorid

An enzyme inhibitor that inactivates IRC-50 arvin, subtilisin, and the fatty acid synthetase complex.
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fenylpropanolamin

A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.
MSH

An alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptor agonist with sympathomimetic activity. Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) binds to and activates alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors in the mucosa of the respiratory tract resulting in vasoconstriction and reduction in swelling of nasal mucous membranes and reduction in tissue hyperemia, edema, and nasal congestion. This agent also stimulates the release of norepinephrine from its storage sites resulting in the effects already described. Finally, PPA indirectly stimulates beta-receptors producing tachycardia and a positive inotropic effect.
NCI

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kyseliny fenylpyrohroznové

A group of compounds that are derivatives of phenylpyruvic acid which has the general formula C6H5CH2COCOOH, and is a metabolite of phenylalanine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
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fenylthiazolylthiomočovina

A dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibitor.
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fenylthiohydantoin

Thiohydantoin benzene derivative.
MSH

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fenytoin

An anticonvulsant that is used in a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.
MSH

anticonvulsant used in a wide variety of seizures; also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant.
CSP

A hydantoin derivative and a non-sedative antiepileptic agent with anticonvulsant activity. Phenytoin potentially acts by promoting sodium efflux from neurons located in the motor cortex reducing post-tetanic potentiation at synapses. The reduction of potentiation prevents cortical seizure foci spreading to adjacent areas, stabilizing the threshold against hyperexcitability. In addition, this agent appears to reduce sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch causing muscle relaxation.
NCI

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feochromocytom

A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)
MSH

usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the adrenal medulla or sympathetic paraganglia; the cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine, is hypertension, which may be persistent or intermittent.
CSP

A benign or malignant neuroendocrine neoplasm of the sympathetic nervous system that secretes catecholamines. It arises from the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Clinical presentation includes headaches, palpitations, chest and abdominal pain, hypertension, fever, and tremor. Microscopically, a characteristic nesting (zellballen) growth pattern is usually seen. Other growth patterns including trabecular pattern may also be present.
NCI

Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor that usually starts in the cells of one of your adrenal glands. Although they are usually benign, pheochromocytomas often cause the adrenal gland to make too many hormones. This can lead to high blood pressure and cause symptoms such as

  • Headaches
  • Sweating
  • Pounding of the heart
  • Chest pain
  • A feeling of anxiety

Sometimes pheochromocytoma is part of another condition called multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome (MEN). People with MEN often have other cancers and other problems involving hormones.

Surgery is the most common treatment. Other options include radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

NIH: National Cancer Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA
CHV

Tumor that forms in the center of the adrenal gland (gland located above the kidney) that causes it to make too much adrenaline. Pheochromocytomas are usually benign (not cancer) but can cause high blood pressure, pounding headaches, heart palpitations, flushing of the face, nausea, and vomiting.
NCI

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feofytiny

Chlorophylls from which the magnesium has been removed by treatment with weak acid.
MSH

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receptory pro feromony

Cell surface receptors that respond to PHEROMONES.
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feromony

substance secreted to the outside of the body by an individual and perceived (as by smell) by a second individual of the same species, prompting a specific behavioral reaction in the perceiver.
CSP

Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
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Phialophora

A mitosporic fungal genus. Phialophora verrucosa is a cause of chromomycosis (CHROMOBLASTOMYCOSIS). Ophiobolus is the teleomorph of Phialophora.
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filadelfský chromozóm

An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).
MSH

An abnormality of chromosome 22 in which part of chromosome 9 is transferred to it. Bone marrow cells that contain the Philadelphia chromosome are often found in chronic myelogenous leukemia.
NCI

A translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22. It is the hallmark for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML).
NCI

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filatelie

Study of stamps or postal markings. It usually refers to the design and commemorative aspects of the stamp.
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Filipíny

A country in Southeastern Asia, comprised of an archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, east of Vietnam. (NCI)
NCI

A country in Southeastern Asia, comprised of an archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, east of Vietnam. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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filologie

The study of literature in its widest sense, including grammar, etymology, criticism, literary history, language history, linguistic history, systems of writing, and anything else that is relevant to literature or language viewed as literature. Philology as a discipline has both philosophical and scientific overtones.
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filologie klasická

The study of ancient Greek and Roman literature, including grammar, etymology, criticism, literary history, and language and linguistic history.
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filologie orientální

The study of literature written in languages of Asia and the Far East, including grammar, etymology, criticism, literary history, and language and linguistic history.
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filologie románská

The study of literature written in the Romance languages (French, Spanish, Italian, and others descended from Latin), including grammar, etymology, criticism, literary history, and language and linguistic history.
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filosofie

A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)
MSH

The field of study concerned with the rational investigation of questions about existence and knowledge and ethics.
NCI

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filosofie lékařská

see:http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/MBrowser.html
AOT

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fimóza

A condition in which the FORESKIN cannot be retracted to reveal the GLANS PENIS. It is due to tightness or narrowing of the foreskin opening.
MSH

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flebitida

Inflammation of a vein, often a vein in the leg. Phlebitis associated with a blood clot is called (THROMBOPHLEBITIS).
MSH

A disorder characterized by inflammation of the wall of a vein.
NCI

Inflammation (redness, swelling, pain, and heat) of a vein, usually in the legs. Phlebitis may be caused by infection, injury, or irritation.
NCI

Inflammation of a vein.
NCI

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