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proteinfosfatasy

family of enzymes which dephosphorylate other proteins, thus reversing the action of protein kinases in posttranslational regulation of protein function.
CSP

A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
MSH

Encoded by Protein Phosphatase Genes, Protein Phosphatase enzymes remove tyrosine-, serine-, or threonine-bound phosphate groups from many phosphoproteins, including enzymes phosphorylated by a tyrosine kinase or a serine/threonine kinase. (NCI)
NCI

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fosfoproteiny

protein phosphorylation is probably the most ubiquitous and diverse molecular mechanism of biological signal transduction; thus many proteins (not all treed here) may be phosphorylated at some time.
CSP

Proteins that contain phosphate groups esterified to serine, threonine or tyrosine. The phosphate group usually regulates protein function. (On-line Medical Dictionary)
NCI

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fosfopyruváthydratasa

A hydro-lyase that catalyzes the dehydration of 2-phosphoglycerate to form PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE. Several different isoforms of this enzyme exist, each with its own tissue specificity.
MSH

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fosforamidové hořčice

A group of nitrogen mustard compounds which are substituted with a phosphoramide group or its derivatives. They are usually cytotoxic and used as antineoplastic agents.
MSH

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fosforany

Inorganic or organic compounds that contain pentavalent phosphorus and the general formula R5P.
MSH

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Phosphorescence

absorption of a photon of light followed, after a delay, by emission of a photon of a longer wavelength; the difference in wavelengths is greater for phosphorescence than fluorescence.
CSP

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fosforibosylpyrofosfát

The key substance in the biosynthesis of histidine, tryptophan, and purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.
MSH

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Phosphoric acid

A colorless, odorless phosphorus-containing inorganic acid. Phosphoric acid is a sequestering agent which binds many divalent cations, including Fe++, Cu++, Ca++, and Mg++. Phosphoric acid is used in dentistry and orthodontics as an etching solution, to clean and roughen the surfaces of teeth where dental appliances or fillings will be placed. In addition, phosphoric acid is a constituent in bone and teeth, and plays a role in many metabolic processes.
NCI

An acid that contains phosphorus and is used in medicine and dentistry. It is also used to remove rust. A dilute form of phosphoric acid is used to flavor soft drinks.
NCI

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estery kyseliny fosforečné

organic esters of phosphoric acid.
CSP

An ester of phosphoric acid, which contains phosphorus. Organic phosphates play important roles in biochemistry and biogeochemistry or ecology.
NCI

A form of phosphoric acid, which contains phosphorus. In the body, phosphates are found in the bones and teeth. Phosphates may be used to treat a high level of calcium in the blood. Adding or removing phosphate chemical groups may affect the way proteins act in the body.
NCI

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kyseliny fosforečné

Inorganic derivatives of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Inorganic salts are known as PHOSPHATES and organic esters are PHOSPHORIC ACID ESTERS.
MSH

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kyseliny fosforité

Inorganic or organic derivatives of phosphorous acid (P(OH)3). Inorganic salts are known as PHOSPHITES. The tautomeric form of this compound (HPO(OH)2) = PHOSPHONIC ACIDS.
MSH

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fosfor

A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
MSH

nonmetallic, allotropic element with atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31; an essential element in the diet, a major component of the mineral phase of bone, and abundant in all tissues; involved in some form in almost all metabolic processes.
CSP

An element with atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 30.97.
NCI

Having to do with or containing the element phosphorus.
NCI

A nonmetallic element that is found in the blood, muscles, nerves, bones, and teeth and is a component of adenosine triphosphate (ATP; the primary energy source for the body`s cells).
NCI

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fosfor – isotopy

Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
MSH

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fosfor – poruchy metabolismu

Disorders in the processing of phosphorus in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.
MSH

condition in which there is a deviation or interruption in the processing of phosphorus in the body includes its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.
CSP

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fosfor – radioisotopy

Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
MSH

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fosforylasa a

The active form of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE that is derived from the phosphorylation of PHOSPHORYLASE B. Phosphorylase a is deactivated via hydrolysis of phosphoserine by PHOSPHORYLASE PHOSPHATASE to form PHOSPHORYLASE B.
MSH

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fosforylasa b

The inactive form of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE that is converted to the active form PHOSPHORYLASE A via phosphorylation by PHOSPHORYLASE KINASE and ATP.
MSH

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fosforylasokinasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and PHOSPHORYLASE B to ADP and PHOSPHORYLASE A.
MSH

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fosforylasafosfatasa

An enzyme that deactivates glycogen phosphorylase a by releasing inorganic phosphate and phosphorylase b, the inactive form. EC 3.1.3.17.
MSH

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fosforylace

The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
MSH

metabolic process of introducing a phosphate group into an organic molecule.
CSP

The process of introducing a phosphate group into a molecule, usually with the formation of a phosphoric ester, a phosphoric anhydride or a phosphoric amide. [ISBN:0198506732 “Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology”]
GO

The creation of a phosphate derivative of an organic molecule. This is usually achieved by transferring a phosphate group from ATP via the action of a kinase.
NCI

A process in which a phosphate group is added to a molecule, such as a sugar or a protein.
NCI

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fosforylcholin

Calcium and magnesium salts used therapeutically in hepatobiliary dysfunction.
MSH

magnesium and calcium salts used in hepatobiliary dysfunction therapy.
CSP

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fosfoserin

The phosphoric acid ester of serine.
MSH

serine, threonine, and tyrosine are the residues which are phosphorylated in proteins.
CSP

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fosfothreonin

The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.
MSH

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fosfotransferasy

A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
MSH

A type of enzyme that causes other molecules in the cell to become active. Some kinases work by adding chemicals called phosphates to other molecules, such as sugars or proteins. Kinases are a part of many cell processes. Some cancer treatments target certain kinases that are linked to cancer.
NCI

Encoded by Kinase Family Genes, Kinase enzymes covalently transfer the terminal, gamma phosphate group from ATP to a variety of substrates and typically play key regulatory roles in diverse cellular functions. (NCI)
NCI

kinase. 1. An enzyme catalyzing the conversion of a proenzyme to an active enzyme; e.g., enteropeptidase (enterokinase). 2. An enzyme catalyzing the transfer of phosphate groups to form triphosphates (e.g., ATP). For individual kinases, see specific name.
NCI

A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
NCI

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kyselina fosfowolframová

Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
MSH

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fosvel

An organothiophosphate insecticide.
MSH

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fosvitin

An egg yolk phosphoglycoprotein which contains about 90% of the yolk protein phosphorus. It is synthesized in the liver of the hen and transferred to the developing oocyte, where it is bound to lipoproteins within the yolk granules.
MSH

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Photobacterium

A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are common in the marine environment and on the surfaces and in the intestinal contents of marine animals. Some species are bioluminescent and are found as symbionts in specialized luminous organs of fish.
MSH

A genus of facultatively anaerobic gram negative rod shaped bacterium in the phylum Proteobacteria and the family Vibrionaceae.
NCI

Any bacteria that is not assigned to the species level but can be assigned to the Photobacterium genus level.
NCI

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fotochemie

branch of chemistry which deals with the chemical properties or effects of visible or ultraviolet light.
CSP

The branch of chemistry that focuses on the changes that chemicals undergo when exposed to light.
NCI

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fotochemoterapie

Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.
MSH

Treatment with drugs that become active when exposed to light. These activated drugs may kill cancer cells.
NCI

intravenous administration of a photosensitizing agent which selectively concentrates in cancer cells, followed by exposure of the tumor to laser light of a specific wavelength; the resulting cytotoxic free radicals destroy the tumor.
CSP

Use of light activated drugs (photosensitizing agents) to kill cancer cells.
NCI

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