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pia mater

The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.
MSH

innermost layer of the leptomeninges, which adheres to the brain and spinal cord and conforms to all the irregularities on their surfaces.
CSP

The delicate, highly vascular, innermost membrane encasing the brain and spinal cord.
NCI

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pica

The persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least one month. (DSM-IV)
MSH

An eating disorder characterized by the persistent eating of nonnutritive substances such as clay or soil; this behavior must be inappropriate to the level of the individual`s development.
NCI

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Pichia

Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.
MSH

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picibanil

A lyophilized preparation of a low-virulence strain (SU) of Streptococcus pyogenes (S. hemolyticus), inactivated by heating with penicillin G. It has been proposed as a noncytotoxic antineoplastic agent because of its immune system-stimulating activity.
MSH

A lyophilized formulation containing cultures of a low-virulent strain of Streptococcus pyogenes, treated and killed with pencillin G, with potential sclerosing, immunostimulating and antineoplastic activity. Besides from picibanil`s direct damaging effect as a sclerosing agent, it seems to have multiple effects on the immune system as a non-specific immunostimulant. Picibanil activates the host immune system by stimulating the activity of natural killer cells, macrophages and lymphocytes, and by enhancing the production of several key immune mediators, including interleukins and tumor necrosis factor.
NCI

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Pickwickův syndrom

HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.
MSH

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pikloram

A picolinic acid derivative that is used as a herbicide.
MSH

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pikoliny

A group of compounds that are monomethyl derivatives of pyridines. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

Any of a group of isomeric compounds that are monomethyl derivatives of pyridines derived from coal tar, horse urine, and bone oil.
NCI

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Picornaviridae

(+)-sense ssRNA viruses; have no envelope or core, nor any surface projections; replication is in the cytoplasm and is via two distinct partially double-stranded replicative intermediates; most of host range is species specific.
CSP

A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.
MSH

A family of non-enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses with an icosahedral capsid.
NCI

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Picornaviridae – infekce

Virus diseases caused by the PICORNAVIRIDAE.
MSH

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pikrotoxin

A noncompetitive antagonist at GABA-A receptors and thus a convulsant. Picrotoxin blocks the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride ionophore. Although it is most often used as a research tool, it has been used as a CNS stimulant and an antidote in poisoning by CNS depressants, especially the barbiturates.
MSH

nonalkaloid extract from the seeds of Anamirta cocculus used as a CNS and respiratory stimulant to counteract toxicity of CNS depressants such as barbiturates; GABA-A receptor antagonist used to probe GABA function in the CNS.
CSP

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pikrylchlorid

A hapten that generates suppressor cells capable of down-regulating the efferent phase of trinitrophenol-specific contact hypersensitivity. (Arthritis Rheum 1991 Feb;34(2):180).
MSH

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piedra

Either of two diseases resulting from fungal infection of the hair shafts. Black piedra occurs mainly in and on the hairs of the scalp and is caused by Piedraia hortae; white piedra occurs in and on the hairs of the scalp, beard, moustache and genital areas and is caused by Trichosporon species.
MSH

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Pierre Robinův syndrom

An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by brachygnathia and cleft palate, often associated with glossoptosis, backward and upward displacement of the larynx, and angulation of the manubrium sterni. Cleft palate makes sucking and swallowing difficult, permitting easy access of fluids into the larynx. It may appear in several syndromes or as an isolated hypoplasia. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

A rare congenital malformation characterized by micrognathia, posterior retraction of the tongue, and cleft palate.
NCI

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pigmentový epitel oční

The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.
MSH

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pigmentace

coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.
CSP

The deposition or aggregation of coloring matter in an organism, tissue or cell. [GOC:jl]
GO

coloration or discoloration of a body part by pigment
CHV

Pigmentation; the coloring of the skin, hair, mucous membranes, and retina of the eye.
NCI

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Pigment

A substance that gives color to tissue. Pigments are responsible for the color of skin, eyes, and hair.
NCI

something that gives color
CHV

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fimbrie bakteriální

Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of “pili”, which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
MSH

minute filamentous appendages of certain bacteria associated with antigenic properties and sex functions of the cell.
CSP

A proteinaceous hair-like appendage on the surface of bacteria ranging from 2-8 nm in diameter. [GOC:pamgo_curators]
GO

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pilokarpin

A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
MSH

slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects, used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
CSP

A drug used to increase salivation in people who have dry mouth caused by opioids or radiation therapy. Pilocarpine belongs to the family of drugs called alkaloids.
NCI

A natural alkaloid extracted from plants of the genus Pilocarpus with cholinergic agonist activity. As a cholinergic parasympathomimetic agent, pilocarpine predominantly binds to muscarinic receptors, thereby inducing exocrine gland secretion and stimulating smooth muscle in the bronchi, urinary tract, biliary tract, and intestinal tract. When applied topically to eyes, this agent stimulates the sphincter pupillae to contract, resulting in miosis; stimulates the ciliary muscle to contract, resulting in spasm of accommodation; and may cause a transitory rise in intraocular pressure followed by a more persistent fall due to opening of the trabecular meshwork and an increase in the outflow of aqueous humor.
NCI

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piloerekce

Involuntary erection or bristling of hairs.
MSH

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pilonidální sinus

A hair-containing cyst or sinus, occurring chiefly in the coccygeal region.
MSH

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pilotní projekty

Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
MSH

The initial study examining a new method or treatment.
NCI

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kyseliny pimelové

A group of compounds that are derivatives of heptanedioic acid with the general formula R-C7H11O4.
MSH

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pimozid

A diphenylbutylpiperidine that is effective as an antipsychotic agent and as an alternative to HALOPERIDOL for the suppression of vocal and motor tics in patients with Tourette syndrome. Although the precise mechanism of action is unknown, blockade of postsynaptic dopamine receptors has been postulated. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p403)
MSH

diphenylbutylpiperidine that is used as an antipsychotic agent and as an alternative to haloperidol for the suppression of vocal and motor tics in patients with Tourette syndrome.
CSP

A diphenylbutylpiperidine derivative and a dopamine antagonist with antipsychotic property. Pimozide selectively inhibits type 2 dopaminergic receptors in the central nervous system (CNS), thereby decreasing dopamine neurotransmission and reducing the occurrence of motor and vocal tics and delusions of parasitosis. In addition, this agent antagonizes alpha-adrenergic and 5-HT2 receptors.
NCI

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pindolol

A moderately lipophilic beta blocker (ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS). It is non-cardioselective and has intrinsic sympathomimetic actions, but little membrane-stabilizing activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmocopoeia, 30th ed, p638)
MSH

An aryloxypropanolamine derivative with antihypertensive property. Pindolol competitively binds to beta-adrenergic receptors, resulting in a decrease in beta-adrenergic activities, i.e., vasodilation, and negative chronotropic and inotropic effects. In addition, this agent blocks serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptors, thereby increasing the available serotonin in the brain. Increased serotonin levels augment the antidepressant action of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and monoamine oxidase inhibitors.
NCI

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epifýza mozková

A light-sensitive neuroendocrine organ attached to the roof of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain. The pineal gland secretes MELATONIN, other biogenic amines, and neuropeptides.
MSH

endocrine gland, located in the median plane, just posterior to the dorsal part of the dorsal thalamus and rostral to the superior colliculus; concerned with adjustment to circadian rhythms; light is thought to have an inhibitory effect on its secretory activity and darkness to be excitatory; impulses are relayed from the retina to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, then to the pineal body by way of the thoracic spinal cord; secretes melatonin, other biogenic amines, and neuropeptides.
CSP

A tiny organ in the cerebrum that produces melatonin.
NCI

Circumventricular organ of neuraxis which is shaped like a pine cone and attached on the midline near the posterior and habenular commissures of the epithalamus.
FMA

a small gland in the brain that produces hormone
CHV

A small endocrine gland in the brain, situated beneath the back part of the corpus callosum, that secretes melatonin.
NCI

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pinealom

Neoplasms which originate from pineal parenchymal cells that tend to enlarge the gland and be locally invasive. The two major forms are pineocytoma and the more malignant pineoblastoma. Pineocytomas have moderate cellularity and tend to form rosette patterns. Pineoblastomas are highly cellular tumors containing small, poorly differentiated cells. These tumors occasionally seed the neuroaxis or cause obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS or Parinaud`s syndrome. GERMINOMA; CARCINOMA, EMBRYONAL; GLIOMA; and other neoplasms may arise in the pineal region with germinoma being the most common pineal region tumor. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2064; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p670)
MSH

new abnormal pineal body tissue that grows by excessive cellular division and proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease.
CSP

A neoplasm arising from the pineocyte, a cell with photosensory and neuroendocrine functions. It may be composed of mature elements or primitive, immature cells. The cellular composition determines the biological behavior and clinical outcome. Three types are recognized: pineoblastoma, pineocytoma, and pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation (Adapted from WHO.)
NCI

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Pinnipedia

large marine mammals belonging to the Pinnipedia, a suborder of the order Carnivora; the true seals, sea lions, fur seals and walrus are all pinnipeds.
CSP

The suborder of aquatic CARNIVORA comprising the WALRUSES; FUR SEALS; SEA LIONS; and EARLESS SEALS. They have fusiform bodies with very short tails and are found on all sea coasts. The offspring are born on land.
MSH

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pinocytóza

The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.
MSH

engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.
CSP

An endocytosis process that results in the uptake of liquid material by cells from their external environment; literally `cell drinking`. Liquid is enclosed in vesicles, formed by invagination of the plasma membrane. These vesicles then move into the cell and pass their contents to endosomes. [ISBN:0198506732 “Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology”]
GO

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pinta

An infectious disease of the skin caused by Treponema carateum that occurs only in the western hemisphere. Age of onset is between 10 and 20 years of age. This condition is characterized by marked changes in the skin color and is believed to be transmitted by direct person-to-person contact.
MSH

An endemic bacterial infection caused by Treponema carateum. It is manifested with chronic cutaneous lesions. The early lesions consist of papules and erythematous plaques. The late lesions consist of hypochromic, achromic, hyperpigmented and atrophic lesions. The late skin lesions may cause destruction of bones and cartilage and produce disfiguring changes.
NCI

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kyselina pipemidová

Antimicrobial against Gram negative and some Gram positive bacteria. It is protein bound and concentrated in bile and urine and used for gastrointestinal, biliary, and urinary infections.
MSH

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