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polycyklické uhlovodíky aromatické

A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley`s Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
MSH

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are a large class of organic compounds containing two or more fused aromatic rings made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms. They have high melting and boiling-points, low vapour pressure, water solubility, and are highly lipophilic. PAH are produced during incomplete combustion or pyrolysis of organic matter, are found in cigarette smoke, motor vehicle exhaust, used motor lubricating oil, broiled meat, coal tar, crude oil, creosote, roofing tar, dyes, plastics, and pesticides. Some members of PAH class were shown to have carcinogenic, genotoxic, and immunotoxic properties, developmental toxicity and affect reproductive health. (NCI)
NCI

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syndrom polycystických ovarií

A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.
MSH

a health problem that can affect a woman`s menstrual cycle, fertility, hormones, insulin production, heart, blood vessels, and appearance
CHV

clinical symptom complex characterized by presence of multiple cysts on the ovaries, oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, anovulation and regularly associated with excessive amounts of body hair (hirsuitism), excessive body weight, infertility and insulin resistance.
CSP

A disorder that manifests as multiple cysts on the ovaries. It results in hormonal imbalances and leads to irregular and abnormal menstrual periods, excess growth of hair, acne eruptions and obesity.
NCI

A condition marked by infertility, enlarged ovaries, menstrual problems, high levels of male hormones, excess hair on the face and body, acne, and obesity. Women with PCOS have an increased risk of diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, and endometrial cancer.
NCI

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) happens when a woman`s ovaries or adrenal glands produce more male hormones than normal. One result is that cysts (fluid-filled sacs) develop on the ovaries. Women who are obese are more likely to have polycystic ovary syndrome.

Symptoms of PCOS include:

  • Infertility
  • Pelvic pain
  • Excess hair growth on the face, chest, stomach, thumbs, or toes
  • Baldness or thinning hair
  • Acne, oily skin, or dandruff
  • Patches of thickened dark brown or black skin
  • Women with PCOS are at higher risk of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, heart disease, and high blood pressure.Medicines can help control the symptoms. Birth control pills help women have normal periods, reduce male hormone levels, and clear acne. Other medicines can reduce hair growth and control blood pressure and cholesterol. There is no cure.

    NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development


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    polycytémie

    An increase in the total red cell mass of the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
    MSH

    increase in the total red cell mass of the blood.
    CSP

    an abnormal increase of the red blood cell in the circulating blood
    CHV

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    polycythemia vera

    A myeloproliferative disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by abnormal proliferation of all hematopoietic bone marrow elements and an absolute increase in red cell mass and total blood volume, associated frequently with splenomegaly, leukocytosis, and thrombocythemia. Hematopoiesis is also reactive in extramedullary sites (liver and spleen). In time myelofibrosis occurs.
    MSH

    myeloproliferative disorder characterized by abnormal proliferation of all hematopoietic bone marrow elements and an absolute increase in red cell mass and total blood volume; associated frequently with splenomegaly, leukocytosis, and thrombocythemia.
    CSP

    a condition that produces excessive red blood cells
    CHV

    A disease in which there are too many red blood cells in the bone marrow and blood, causing the blood to thicken. The number of white blood cells and platelets may also increase. The extra blood cells may collect in the spleen and cause it to become enlarged. They may also cause bleeding problems and make clots form in blood vessels.
    NCI

    A chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by an increased red blood cell production. Excessive proliferation of the myeloid lineage is observed as well. The major symptoms are related to hypertension or to vascular abnormalities caused by the increased red cell mass. The cause is unknown. With currently available treatment, the median survival exceeds 10 years. (WHO, 2001)
    NCI

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    DNA-ligasy

    Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC 6.5.1.1 (ATP) and EC 6.5.1.2 (NAD).
    MSH

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    polydeoxyribonukleotidy

    A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
    MSH

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    polyeny

    Hydrocarbons with more than one double bond. They are a reduced form of POLYYNES.
    MSH

    aliphatic or alicyclic compound with a carbon chain of four or more atoms and several conjugated double bonds.
    CSP

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    polyestery

    Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages–usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.
    MSH

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    polyethylenglykoly

    Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
    MSH

    an addition polymer of ethylene oxide and water.
    CSP

    A polymer made by joining molecules of ethylene oxide and water together in a repeating pattern. Polyethylene glycol can be a liquid or a waxy solid. In medicine, forms of polyethylene glycol can be used in ointments, in drugs or substances to make them stay in the body longer, or in laxatives.
    NCI

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    polyethylentereftaláty

    Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.
    MSH

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    polyethylenimin

    Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).
    MSH

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    polyethyleny

    Synthetic thermoplastics that are tough, flexible, inert, and resistant to chemicals and electrical current. They are often used as biocompatible materials for prostheses and implants.
    MSH

    polymerized ethylene; a synthetic plastic material, forms of which have been used in reparative surgery.
    CSP

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    polygalakturonasa

    A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 3.2.1.15.
    MSH

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    polygelin

    A 3.5 per cent colloidal solution containing urea-cross-linked polymerized peptides. It has a molecular weight of approximately 35,000 and is prepared from gelatin and electrolytes. The polymeric solution is used as a plasma expander.
    MSH

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    polyglaktin 910

    A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.
    MSH

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    kyselina polyglutamová

    A peptide that is a homopolymer of glutamic acid.
    MSH

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    kyselina polyglykolová

    A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.
    MSH

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    Polygonum

    A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that is an ingredient of Shou-Wu-Pian, a Chinese herbal preparation (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL). The common name of black bindweed also refers to TAMUS or Fallopia (use POLYGONACEAE).
    MSH

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    polyhydroxyethylmethakrylát

    A biocompatible, hydrophilic, inert gel that is permeable to tissue fluids. It is used as an embedding medium for microscopy, as a coating for implants and prostheses, for contact lenses, as microspheres in adsorption research, etc.
    MSH

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    polyisoprenylfosfátové monosacharidy

    These compounds function as activated monosaccharide carriers in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and oligosaccharide phospholipids. Obtained from a nucleoside diphosphate sugar and a polyisoprenyl phosphate.
    MSH

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    polyisoprenylfosfátové oligosacharidy

    These compounds function as activated glycosyl carriers in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and glycophospholipids. Include the pyrophosphates.
    MSH

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    polyisoprenylfosfátové cukry

    Compounds functioning as activated glycosyl carriers in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and glycophospholipids. They include the polyisoprenyl pyrophosphates.
    MSH

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    polyisoprenylfosfáty

    Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.
    MSH

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    polylysin

    A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.
    MSH

    peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.
    CSP

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    polymerázová řetězová reakce

    In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
    MSH

    method for reproducing specific DNA sequences based on elongation of complementary primers by DNA polymerase; primarily used to increase quantities for analytical detection of, e.g., virus genome.
    CSP

    A laboratory method used to make many copies of a specific DNA sequence.
    NCI

    laboratory procedure for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments
    CHV

    Description:Polymerase Chain Reaction


    HL7V3.0

    A method for amplifying a DNA base sequence using multiple rounds of heat denaturation of the DNA and annealing of oligonucleotide primers complementary to flanking regions in the presence of a heat-stable polymerase. This results in duplication of the targeted DNA region. Newly synthesized DNA strands can subsequently serve as additional templates for the same primer sequences, so that successive rounds of primer annealing, strand elongation, and dissociation produce rapid and highly specific amplification of the desired sequence. PCR also can be used to detect the existence of the defined sequence in a DNA sample.
    NCI

    Molecular, Polymerase chain reaction


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    polymery

    Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
    MSH

    compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds; these compounds often form large macromolecules; for example, plastics, polypeptides, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids.
    CSP

    A molecule made up of a linked series of repeated monomers.
    NCI

    A molecule made up of small identical molecules called monomers. The monomers are joined together in a repeating pattern.
    NCI

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    kyseliny polymethakrylové

    Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.
    MSH

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    polymorfismus genetický

    simultaneous occurrence in the population of genomes showing allelic variations such as different phenotypes or restriction maps.
    CSP

    A common change in the genetic code in DNA. Polymorphisms can have a harmful effect, a good effect, or no effect. Some polymorphisms have been shown to increase the risk of certain types of cancer.
    NCI

    a common genetic variation or mutation, the occurrence of different forms, stages, or types in individual organisms or in organisms of the same species.
    CHV

    The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
    MSH

    The regular and simultaneous occurrence of alternative nucleotide sequences at equivalent locations of the genetic material among individuals of a single interbreeding population that are not maintained by recurrent mutation. Polymorphisms may range in size from single nucleotide to large nucleotide sequence variation visible at the chromosomal level.
    NCI

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    polymyalgia rheumatica

    A syndrome in the elderly characterized by proximal joint and muscle pain, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and a self-limiting course. Pain is usually accompanied by evidence of an inflammatory reaction. Women are affected twice as commonly as men and Caucasians more frequently than other groups. The condition is frequently associated with GIANT CELL ARTERITIS and some theories pose the possibility that the two diseases arise from a single etiology or even that they are the same entity.
    MSH

    Polymyalgia rheumatica causes muscle pain and stiffness in your neck, shoulders and hips. It is most common in women and almost always occurs in people over 50. The main symptom of polymyalgia rheumatica is stiffness after resting. Other symptoms include fever, weakness and weight loss. In some cases, polymyalgia rheumatica develops overnight. In others, it is gradual.

    Polymyalgia rheumatica sometimes occurs along with giant cell arteritis, a condition that causes swelling of the arteries in your head. Symptoms include headaches and blurred vision. Doctors often prescribe a medicine called prednisone for both conditions. Polymyalgia rheumatic usually responds to treatment. Without treatment, it usually goes away after a year or more. Untreated, giant cell arteritis carries a small risk of blindness or stroke.

    NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases


    MEDLINEPLUS

    A syndrome characterized by pain, stiffness, and tenderness of the proximal muscle groups including the shoulder, pelvic girdle and the neck. There is no muscle atrophy and muscle biopsies do not reveal pathologic changes. Additional signs and symptoms include low grade fever, fatigue and depression.
    NCI

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    polymyxin B

    A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.
    MSH

    A mixture of the polypeptides polymyxins B1 and B2, both obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains, with antimicrobial activity. Polymyxin B exerts its antimicrobial effect through its cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Specifically, this antibiotic binds to the negatively charged site in the lipopolysaccharide layer of the bacterial cell membrane via electrostatic affinity with the positively charged amino groups in the cyclic peptide portion. Subsequently, the fatty acid portion of polymyxin B dissolves in the hydrophobic region of the bacterial cell membrane. This results in an alteration in cell membrane structure, disruption of cell wall integrity and an increase in permeability for water and molecules. This will eventually lead to bacterial cell death.
    NCI

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