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ochranné látky

Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.
MSH

A class of agents used in prophylactic or curative therapy to attenuate the negative side effects of toxins or drugs. Protective agents belong to various chemical classes, acting through various pharmacological mechanisms. They may neutralize exogenous poisons, coat mucosa for protection against physical or chemical damage, offer antioxidant protection against free radicals or ionizing radiation, or induce endogenous detoxifying enzymes. (NCI04)
NCI

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Proteidae

The Proteidae family of permanently larval aquatic salamanders. It consists of two living genera – Necturus (mudpuppy) of the eastern United States and Proteus (the European olm).
MSH

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proteinarginin-N-methyltransferasa

Enzymes that catalyze the methylation of arginine residues of proteins to yield N-mono- and N,N-dimethylarginine. This enzyme is found in many organs, primarily brain and spleen.
MSH

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proteiny – vazba

The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
MSH

Interacting selectively and non-covalently with any protein or protein complex (a complex of two or more proteins that may include other nonprotein molecules). [GOC:go_curators]
GO

strong physiochemical attraction between proteins and other molecules, including proteins.
CSP

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protein C

A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.
MSH

vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.
CSP

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proteiny – konformace

The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
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proteiny – nedostatek

A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of proteins in the diet, characterized by adaptive enzyme changes in the liver, increase in amino acid synthetases, and diminution of urea formation, thus conserving nitrogen and reducing its loss in the urine. Growth, immune response, repair, and production of enzymes and hormones are all impaired in severe protein deficiency. Protein deficiency may also arise in the face of adequate protein intake if the protein is of poor quality (i.e., the content of one or more amino acids is inadequate and thus becomes the limiting factor in protein utilization). (From Merck Manual, 16th ed; Harrison`s Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p406)
MSH

nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of proteins in the diet; growth, immune response, repair, and production of enzymes and hormones are all impaired in severe protein deficiency; protein deficiency may also arise in the face of adequate protein intake if the dietary protein is inadequate in one or more aminoacids.
CSP

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proteiny – denaturace

Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
MSH

process of unfolding or otherwise grossly changing the tertiary structure of a protein; usually applies to experimental treatments, although may occur in biological contexts (e.g., “heat shock”).
CSP

Structural change in proteins which destroys the native, active configuration without rupture of peptide bonds. [GOC:kd, ISBN:3110145359]
GO

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proteindisulfidreduktasa (glutathion)

An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of a protein-disulfide in the presence of glutathione, forming a protein-dithiol. Insulin is one of its substrates. EC 1.8.4.2.
MSH

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proteinové inženýrství

Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
MSH

experimental or other man-made manipulations resulting in proteins which do not occur in nature; frequently, but not always, involves genetic manipulation.
CSP

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proteinkinasa C

An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
MSH

nonEC.
CSP

An enzyme found throughout the body`s tissues and organs. Several forms of PKC are involved in many cellular functions. PKC is being studied in the treatment of cancer.
NCI

A family of serine/threonine protein kinases that have a structurally conserved catalytic subunit and a regulatory subunit that are connected by a hinge domain.
NCI

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proteinkinasa závislá na cyklickém AMP – typ II

A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.
MSH

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proteinkinasy

A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
MSH

group of enzymes under review by NC-IUBMB include EC 2.7.1.38, EC 2.7.1.70, EC 2.7.1.99, EC 2.7.1.109, EC 2.7.1.110, EC 2.7.1.111, EC 2.7.1.115, EC 2.7. 1.116, EC 2.7.1.124, EC 2.7.1.135, and EC 2.7.1.141.
CSP

A class of phosphotransferase proteins that posttranslationally modify protein substrates through the addition of phosphate groups.
NCI

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histonlysin-N-methyltransferasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the methylation of the epsilon-amino group of lysine residues in proteins to yield epsilon mono-, di-, and trimethyllysine. EC 2.1.1.43.
MSH

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proteinmethyltransferasy

Enzymes that catalyze the methylation of amino acids after their incorporation into a polypeptide chain. S-Adenosyl-L-methionine acts as the methylating agent. EC 2.1.1.
MSH

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protein-O-methyltransferasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosylmethionine to free carboxyl groups of a protein molecule forming methyl esters. EC 2.1.1.-.
MSH

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proteiny – úpravy post-translační

Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
MSH

normal biosynthetic reactions occurring after polypeptide chain assembly at the ribosome; for experimental modifications, use PROTEIN ENGINEERING or other term.
CSP

Any protein maturation process achieved by the cleavage of peptide bonds. [GOC:curators, GOC:jl, GOC:jsg]
GO

The process of covalently altering one or more amino acids in a protein after the protein has been completely translated and released from the ribosome. [GOC:jsg]
GO

The enzymatic processing of a polypeptide chain after translation from messenger RNA and after peptide bond formation has occurred. Examples include glycosylation, acylation, limited proteolysis, phosphorylation, isoprenylation. (On-line Medical Dictionary)
NCI

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proteiny – inhibitory syntézy

Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.
MSH

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podvýživa z nedostatku proteinů a kalorií

The lack of sufficient energy or protein to meet the body`s metabolic demands, as a result of either an inadequate dietary intake of protein, intake of poor quality dietary protein, increased demands due to disease, or increased nutrient losses.
MSH

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transglutaminasy

Transglutaminases catalyze cross-linking of proteins at a GLUTAMINE in one chain with LYSINE in another chain. They include keratinocyte transglutaminase (TGM1 or TGK), tissue transglutaminase (TGM2 or TGC), plasma transglutaminase involved with coagulation (FACTOR XIII and FACTOR XIIIa), hair follicle transglutaminase, and prostate transglutaminase. Although structures differ, they share an active site (YGQCW) and strict CALCIUM dependence.
MSH

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exsudativní enteropatie

Pathological conditions in the INTESTINES that are characterized by the gastrointestinal loss of serum proteins, including SERUM ALBUMIN; IMMUNOGLOBULINS; and at times LYMPHOCYTES. Severe condition can result in HYPOGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA or LYMPHOPENIA. Protein-losing enteropathies are associated with a number of diseases including INTESTINAL LYMPHANGIECTASIS; WHIPPLE`S DISEASE; and NEOPLASMS of the SMALL INTESTINE.
MSH

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protein-tyrosinkinasy

Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
MSH

Kinases that phosphorylate protein tyrosine residues. These kinases play major roles in mitogenic signalling, and can be divided into two subfamilies: receptor tyrosine kinases, that have an extracellular ligand-binding domain, a single transmembrane domain, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain; and nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, which are soluble, cytoplasmic kinases. (Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology Online)
NCI

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proteiny

Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
MSH

linear polymers of alpha-L-aminoacids ranging in size from a few thousand to over 1 million daltons, capable of oligomerization, with specific functions dictated by aminoacid sequence and encoded genetically.
CSP

A molecule made up of amino acids that are needed for the body to function properly. Proteins are the basis of body structures such as skin and hair and of substances such as enzymes, cytokines, and antibodies.
NCI

A group of complex organic macromolecules composed of one or more chains (linear polymers) of alpha-L-amino acids linked by peptide bonds and ranging in size from a few thousand to over 1 million Daltons. Proteins are fundamental genetically encoded components of living cells with specific structures and functions dictated by amino acid sequence.
NCI

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proteinurie

The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
MSH

presence of excess protein in the urine.
CSP

A disorder characterized by laboratory test results that indicate the presence of excessive protein in the urine. It is predominantly albumin, but also globulin.
NCI

abnormal presence of protein in urine
CHV

The presence of excessive protein, chiefly albumin but also globulin, in the urine.
NCI

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chondroitinsulfát proteoglykany

Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.
MSH

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proteoglykany

Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
MSH

family of glycoproteins with repeating disaccharide subunits, including the mucopolysaccharide glycoproteins (mucoproteins), and found in extracellular matrix.
CSP

A molecule that contains both protein and glycosaminoglycans, which are a type of polysaccharide. Proteoglycans are found in cartilage and other connective tissues.
NCI

A protein that has one or more glycosaminoglycans covalently attached.
NCI

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proteolipidy

Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
MSH

covalent complexes of protein and lipid with lipophilic properties; LIPOPROTEIN, by contrast, can be noncovalent and water soluble, but in modern usage both terms are applied to membrane proteolipids.
CSP

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protestantismus

The name given to all Christian denominations, sects, or groups rising out of the Reformation. Protestant churches generally agree that the principle of authority should be the Scriptures rather than the institutional church or the pope. (from W.L. Reese, Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion, 1999)
MSH

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Proteus

genus of gram negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters; its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.
CSP

A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.
MSH

A genus of Gram-negative, oxidase-negative, but catalase- and nitrase-positive bacteria in the phylum Proteobacteria.
NCI

Any bacteria that is not assigned to the species level but can be assigned to the Proteus genus level.
NCI

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Proteus – infekce

Infections with bacteria of the genus PROTEUS.
MSH

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