Additional pages

Proteus mirabilis

A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is frequently isolated from clinical specimens. Its most common site of infection is the urinary tract.
MSH

Any bacterial organism that can be assigned to the species Proteus mirabilis.
NCI

A Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacterium with swarming motility, and urease activity.
NCI

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Proteus vulgaris

A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.
MSH

Any bacterial organism that can be assigned to the species Proteus vulgaris.
NCI

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prothionamid

Antitubercular agent similar in action and side effects to ETHIONAMIDE. It is used mostly in combination with other agents.
MSH

A thioamide derivative with antitubercular activity. Protionamide forms a covalent adduct with bacterial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), PTH-NAD, which competitively inhibits 2-trans-enoyl-ACP reductase (inhA), an enzyme essential for mycolic acid synthesis. This results in increased cell wall permeability and decreased resistance against cell injury eventually leading to cell lysis. Mycolic acids, long-chain fatty acids, are essential mycobacterial cell wall components and play a key role in resistance to cell injury and mycobacterial virulence.
NCI

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prothrombin

A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.
MSH

plasma protein precursor of thrombin, converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex; deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.
CSP

Prothrombin (622 aa, ~70 kDa) is encoded by the human F2 gene. This protein plays a role in both coagulation and proteolysis of fibrinogen.
NCI

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prothrombinový čas

Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.
MSH

clotting time of plasma recalcified in the presence of excess tissue thromboplastin; used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with coumarins.
CSP

A measurement of the clotting time of plasma recalcified in the presence of excess tissue thromboplastin; it is a measure of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation. It is used to determine the clotting tendency of blood, in the measure of warfarin dosage, liver damage and vitamin K status. Factors measured are fibrinogen, prothrombin, and factors V, VII, and X.
NCI

A blood clotting measurement that evaluates the extrinsic pathway of coagulation and is expressed in units of time or percent activity.
NCI

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protoonkogenní proteiny

Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
MSH

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protoonkogeny

Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc.
MSH

normal, nonpathogenic genes which, when mutated or otherwise altered, become oncogenes; many code for growth factors, growth factor receptors, genetic regulatory proteins, or other signal transduction molecules; compare with TUMOR SUPPRESSOR GENE and ONCOGENE.
CSP

A gene involved in normal cell growth. Mutations (changes) in a proto-oncogene may cause it to become an oncogene, which can cause the growth of cancer cells.
NCI

Oncogenes are altered forms of normal cellular genes called proto-oncogene. Many proto-oncogenes are homologous to viral oncogenes and involved in the control of cell proliferation or differentiation. Mutations, amplifications or rearrangements of proto-oncogenes lead to upregulated or deregulated cell growth and allow them to function as oncogenes.
NCI

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protokatechuát-3,4-dioxygenasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of protocatechuate to 3-carboxy-cis-cis-muconate in the presence of molecular oxygen. It contains ferric ion. EC 1.13.11.3.
MSH

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protochlorofylid

A photo-active pigment localized in prolamellar bodies occurring within the proplastids of dark-grown bean leaves. In the process of photoconversion, the highly fluorescent protochlorophyllide is converted to chlorophyll.
MSH

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protony

Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
MSH

A small, positively charged particle of matter found in the atoms of all elements. Streams of protons generated by special equipment can be used for radiation treatment.
NCI

the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom; stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements.
CSP

A fundamental particle with a positive charge.
NCI

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protoplasty

A bacterial cell deprived of its cell wall, for example by growth in an isotonic medium in the presence of antibiotics that block synthesis of the wall peptidoglycan. Alternatively, a plant cell similarly deprived by enzymic treatment. (On-line Medical Dictionary)
NCI

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protoporfyriny

Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.
MSH

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Prototheca

A genus of achlorophyllic algae in the family Chlorellaceae, and closely related to CHLORELLA. It is found in decayed matter; WATER; SEWAGE; and SOIL; and produces cutaneous and disseminated infections in various VERTEBRATES including humans.
MSH

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protoveratriny

Mixtures of closely related hypotensive alkaloids from Veratrum album (Liliaceae). They have been used in the treatment of hypertension but have largely been replaced by drugs with fewer adverse effects.
MSH

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Protozoa

highly motile, unicellular eukaryotes, usually predatory or parasitic; movement by cilia, flagella or ameboid motion; may be aquatic or terrestrial.
CSP

Unicellular heterotrophic eukaryote in the kingdom protista.
NCI

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protozoální infekce

Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.
MSH

infections with unicellular organisms of the subkingdom Protozoa.
CSP

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protozoální infekce zvířat

Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.
MSH

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protozoální proteiny

Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
MSH

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protriptylin

Tricyclic antidepressant similar in action and side effects to IMIPRAMINE. It may produce excitation.
MSH

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proventriculus

A thin-walled, glandular stomach found in birds. It precedes the gizzard.
MSH

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Providencia

Gram-negative rods isolated from human urine and feces.
MSH

A genus of facultatively anaerobic, Gram negative, rod shaped bacterium in the phylum Proteobacteria and the family Enterobacteriaceae.
NCI

Any bacteria that is not assigned to the species level but can be assigned to the Providencia genus level.
NCI

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proviry

Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
MSH

virus genome integrated into the cell genome or into a plasmid in which it replicates; viral DNA is thus passively replicated by the host machinery.
CSP

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prune belly syndrom

A syndrome characterized by abdominal wall musculature deficiency, cryptorchism, and urinary tract abnormalities. The syndrome derives its name from its characteristic distended abdomen with wrinkled skin.
MSH

A rare congenital syndrome occurring almost exclusively in males. It is characterized by partial or complete lack of the abdominal wall muscles, enlarged bladder, dilated ureters, hydronephrosis, and undescended testes.
NCI

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prurigo

A name applied to several itchy skin eruptions of unknown cause. The characteristic course is the formation of a dome-shaped papule with a small transient vesicle on top, followed by crusting over or lichenification. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

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HAZNAHIA, ERRASUMINA (ESKL. UZKIGENITALA D05)

An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief.
MSH

intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief.
CSP

Itching is skin tingling or irritation that makes you want to scratch the itchy area. It`s a symptom of many health conditions. Common causes are

To soothe itchy skin, you can try cold compresses, lotions and lukewarm baths. Avoid scratching, wearing irritating fabrics and high heat and humidity. Most itching is not serious. However, if you itch all over, have hives that keep coming back or have itching without an apparent cause, you might require medical attention.


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by an intense itching sensation.
NCI

Itching. Severe itching may be a side effect of some cancer treatments and a symptom of some types of cancers.
NCI

An intense itching sensation.
NCI

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HAZNAHI PERIANALA

Intense chronic itching in the anal area.
MSH

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pruritus vulvae

Intense itching of the external female genitals.
MSH

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pruská modř – reakce

The reaction of potassium ferrocyanide with ferric iron to yield a dark blue precipitate at the sites of the ferric iron. Used to determine ferric iron in tissues, particularly in the diagnosis of disorders of iron metabolism.
MSH

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Pseudallescheria

Ascomycetous fungi, family Microascaceae, order Microascales, commonly found in the soil. They are causative agents of mycetoma, maduromycosis, and other infections in humans.
MSH

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pseudoartróza

A pathologic entity characterized by deossification of a weight-bearing long bone, followed by bending and pathologic fracture, with inability to form normal BONY CALLUS leading to existence of the “false joint” that gives the condition its name. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

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