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pyruvate dehydrogenase

a component of the multi-enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase complex also another name for EC 4.1.1.1, PYRUVATE DECARBOXYLASE, do not confuse.
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pyruvátdehydrogenasový komplex

A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
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pyruvátdehydrogenasový komplex – nedostatek

An inherited metabolic disorder caused by deficient enzyme activity in the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX, resulting in deficiency of acetyl CoA and reduced synthesis of acetylcholine. Two clinical forms are recognized: neonatal and juvenile. The neonatal form is a relatively common cause of lactic acidosis in the first weeks of life and may also feature an erythematous rash. The juvenile form presents with lactic acidosis, alopecia, intermittent ATAXIA; SEIZURES; and an erythematous rash. (From J Inherit Metab Dis 1996;19(4):452-62) Autosomal recessive and X-linked forms are caused by mutations in the genes for the three different enzyme components of this multisubunit pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. One of the mutations at Xp22.2-p22.1 in the gene for the E1 alpha component of the complex leads to LEIGH DISEASE.
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pyruvátdehydrogenasofosfatasa

(Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide))-phosphate phosphohydrolase. A mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic removal of a phosphate on a specific seryl hydroxyl group of pyruvate dehydrogenase, reactivating the enzyme complex. EC 3.1.3.43.
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pyruvátkinasa

ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.
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pyruváty – vrozené poruchy metabolismu

Hereditary disorders of pyruvate metabolism. They are difficult to diagnose and describe because pyruvate is a key intermediate in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Some inherited metabolic disorders may alter pyruvate metabolism indirectly. Disorders in pyruvate metabolism appear to lead to deficiencies in neurotransmitter synthesis and, consequently, to nervous system disorders.
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pyruvátfosfátdikinasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of ATP, pyruvate, and orthophosphate to form AMP plus phosphoenolpyruvate plus pyrophosphate. EC 2.7.9.1.
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Pythium

A genus of destructive root-parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Pythiaceae, order Peronosporales, commonly found in cultivated soils all over the world. Differentiation of zoospores takes place in a vesicle.
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pyurie

The presence of white blood cells (LEUKOCYTES) in the urine. It is often associated with bacterial infections of the urinary tract. Pyuria without BACTERIURIA can be caused by TUBERCULOSIS, stones, or cancer.
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Q beta replikasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the replication of the RNA of coliphage Q beta. EC 2.7.7.-.
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Q-horečka

An acute infectious disease caused by COXIELLA BURNETII. It is characterized by a sudden onset of FEVER; HEADACHE; malaise; and weakness. In humans, it is commonly contracted by inhalation of infected dusts derived from infected domestic animals (ANIMALS, DOMESTIC).
MSH

acute infectious disease caused by Coxiella burnetii; characterized by a sudden onset of fever,headache, malaise, and weakness; in humans, it is commonly contracted by inhalation of infected dusts derived from infected domestic animals.
CSP

A bacterial infection caused by Coxiella burnetii. It is transmitted to humans by the inhalation of infected air particles or contact with fluids and feces of infected animals. Signs and symptoms include the abrupt onset of fever, headache, myalgias, and weakness.
NCI

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Q-třídění

A personality assessment technique in which the subject or observer indicates the degree to which a standardized set of descriptive statements actually describes the subject. The term reflects “sorting” procedures occasionally used with this technique.
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Katar

A country in the Middle East, occupying a peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia. (NCI)
NCI

A country in the Middle East, occupying a peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
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šarlatánství

The fraudulent misrepresentation of the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
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kvadruplegie

Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.
MSH

Paralysis of all four limbs.
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čtyřčata

Four individuals derived from four FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.
MSH

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křepelky a křepelovití

Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.
MSH

small gallinaceous game birds.
CSP

A member of the Phasianidae family of pheasants that includes several genera, including Cotumix, Anurophasis, Perdicula and Ophrysia.
NCI

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kvalitativní hodnocení

A type of evaluation that is primarily descriptive and interpretative, and may or may not lend itself to quantification. Mainly concerned with the properties, the state, and the character (i.e., the nature) of phenomena. It implies an emphasis on processes and meanings that are rigorously examined, but not measured in terms of quantity, amount, or frequency. (www.unfpa.org/monitoring/toolkit/glossary.pdf and Nonprofit Good Practice Guide Glossary)
NCI

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zdravotní péče – zajištění kvality

Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.
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kvalita – kontrola

A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
MSH

The operational techniques and activities undertaken within the quality assurance system to verify that the requirements for quality of the trial related activities have been fulfilled. [ICH]
NCI

Set of measurements and inspections taken to verify that performance of equipment and procedures remains within specified limits. (Dr. Joseph A. Thie)
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kvalita zdravotní péče

The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.
MSH

activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program; the concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.
CSP

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kvalita života

A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
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kvantová teorie

The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck`s constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.
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karanténa

Restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; and detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion. It includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Black`s Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
MSH

Place into enforced isolation.
NCI

restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion; it includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country.
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křemen

Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh`s Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
MSH

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Quebec

A province of eastern Canada. Its capital is Quebec. The region belonged to France from 1627 to 1763 when it was lost to the British. The name is from the Algonquian quilibek meaning the place where waters narrow, referring to the gradually narrowing channel of the St. Lawrence or to the narrows of the river at Cape Diamond. (From Webster`s New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p993 & Room, Brewer`s Dictionary of Names, 1992, p440)
MSH

A province of eastern Canada. Its capital is Quebec.
NCI

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Queensland

A state in northeastern Australia. Its capital is Brisbane. Its coast was first visited by Captain Cook in 1770 and its first settlement (penal) was located on Moreton Bay in 1824. The name Cooksland was first proposed but honor to Queen Victoria prevailed. (From Webster`s New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p996 & Room, Brewer`s Dictionary of Names, 1992, p441)
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quercetin

A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.
MSH

antioxidant flavonol widely distributed in plants.
CSP

A kaempferol with a hydroxyl group at C-3`.
NCI

A polyphenolic flavonoid with potential chemopreventive activity. Quercetin, ubiquitous in plant food sources and a major bioflavonoid in the human diet, may produce antiproliferative effects resulting from the modulation of either EGFR or estrogen-receptor mediated signal transduction pathways. Although the mechanism of action of action is not fully known, the following effects have been described with this agent in vitro: decreased expression of mutant p53 protein and p21-ras oncogene, induction of cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase and inhibition of heat shock protein synthesis. This compound also demonstrates synergy and reversal of the multidrug resistance phenotype, when combined with chemotherapeutic drugs, in vitro. Quercetin also produces anti-inflammatory and anti-allergy effects mediated through the inhibition of the lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways, thereby preventing the production of pro-inflammatory mediators.
NCI

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dotazníky

Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data – clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
MSH

predetermined set of questions used to collect data; often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
CSP

A set of questions or items shown to a respondent in order to get answers for research purposes. [PRO Draft Guidance] See also instrument, survey.
NCI

A predetermined set of questions.
NCI

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chinakrin

An acridine derivative formerly widely used as an antimalarial but superseded by chloroquine in recent years. It has also been used as an anthelmintic and in the treatment of giardiasis and malignant effusions. It is used in cell biological experiments as an inhibitor of phospholipase A2.
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