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chinakrinová hořčice

Nitrogen mustard analog of quinacrine used primarily as a stain in the studies of chromosomes and chromatin. Fluoresces by reaction with nucleic acids in chromosomes.
MSH

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chinazoliny

two ring heterocyclic compound.
CSP

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chinestrol

The 3-cyclopentyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. After gastrointestinal absorption, it is stored in ADIPOSE TISSUE, slowly released, and metabolized principally to the parent compound. It has been used in ESTROGEN REPLACEMENT THERAPY. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1011)
MSH

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kyselina chinová

An acid which is found in cinchona bark and elsewhere in plants. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
MSH

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chinidin

An optical isomer of quinine, extracted from the bark of the Cinchona tree and similar plant species. This alkaloid dampens the excitability of cardiac and skeletal muscles by blocking sodium and potassium currents across cellular membranes. It prolongs cellular action potential, and decreases automaticity. Quinidine also blocks muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic neurotransmission.
MSH

D isomer of quinine; sometimes used as an antimalarial in patients who cannot tolerate quinine.
CSP

An alkaloid extracted from the bark of the Cinchona tree with class 1A antiarrhythmic and antimalarial effects. Quinidine stabilizes the neuronal membrane by binding to and inhibiting voltage-gated sodium channels, thereby inhibiting the sodium influx required for the initiation and conduction of impulses resulting in an increase of the threshold for excitation and decreased depolarization during phase 0 of the action potential. In addition, the effective refractory period (ERP), action potential duration (APD), and ERP/APD ratios are increased, resulting in decreased conduction velocity of nerve impulses. Quinidine exerts its antimalarial activity by acting primarily as an intra-erythrocytic schizonticide through association with the heme polymer (hemazoin) in the acidic food vacuole of the parasite thereby preventing further polymerization by heme polymerase enzyme. This results in accumulation of toxic heme and death of the parasite. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39022&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39022&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C793″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

An alkaloid extracted from the bark of the Cinchona tree with class 1A antiarrhythmic and antimalarial effects. Quinidine stabilizes the neuronal membrane by binding to and inhibiting voltage-gated sodium channels, thereby inhibiting the sodium influx required for the initiation and conduction of impulses resulting in an increase of the threshold for excitation and decreased depolarization during phase 0 of the action potential. In addition, the effective refractory period (ERP), action potential duration (APD), and ERP/APD ratios are increased, resulting in decreased conduction velocity of nerve impulses. Quinidine exerts its antimalarial activity by acting primarily as an intra-erythrocytic schizonticide through association with the heme polymer (hemazoin) in the acidic food vacuole of the parasite thereby preventing further polymerization by heme polymerase enzyme. This results in accumulation of toxic heme and death of the parasite.
NCI

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Quinidine Sulfate

The sulfate salt form of quinidine, an alkaloid with antimalarial and antiarrhythmic (Class la) properties. Quinidine sulfate exerts its anti-malarial activity by acting primarily as an intra-erythrocytic schizonticide through association with the hemepolymer (hemozoin) in the acidic food vacuole of the parasite thereby preventing further polymerization by heme polymerase enzyme. This results in accumulation of toxic heme and death of the parasite. Quinidine sulfate exerts its antiarrhythmic effects by depressing the flow of sodium ions into cells during phase 0 of the cardiac action potential, thereby slowing the impulse conduction through the atrioventricular (AV) node, reducing the rate of phase 0 depolarization and prolonging the refractory period. Quinidine sulfate also reduces the slope of phase 4 depolarization in Purkinje-fibres resulting in slowed conduction and reduced automaticity in the heart.
NCI

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chinin

An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.
MSH

quinine ascorbate is listed by USP as a smoking deterrent.
CSP

A quinidine alkaloid isolated from the bark of the cinchona tree. Quinine has many mechanisms of action, including reduction of oxygen intake and carbohydrate metabolism; disruption of DNA replication and transcription via DNA intercalation; and reduction of the excitability of muscle fibers via alteration of calcium distribution. This agent also inhibits the drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein which is overexpressed in multi-drug resistant tumors and may improve the efficacy of some antineoplastic agents. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=41253&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=41253&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C794″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A quinidine alkaloid isolated from the bark of the cinchona tree. Quinine has many mechanisms of action, including reduction of oxygen intake and carbohydrate metabolism; disruption of DNA replication and transcription via DNA intercalation; and reduction of the excitability of muscle fibers via alteration of calcium distribution. This agent also inhibits the drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein which is overexpressed in multi-drug resistant tumors and may improve the efficacy of some antineoplastic agents. (NCI04)
NCI

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Quinine Sulfate

The sulfate salt form of the quinidine alkaloid isolate quinine. Quinine has many mechanisms of action, including reduction of oxygen intake and carbohydrate metabolism; disruption of DNA replication and transcription via DNA intercalation; and reduction of the excitability of muscle fibers via alteration of calcium distribution. This agent also inhibits the drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein which is overexpressed in multi-drug resistant tumors and may improve the efficacy of some antineoplastic agents. (NCI04)
NCI

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chinoliny

bicyclic aromatic ring structure with one ortho nitrogen.
CSP

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chinolony

A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
MSH

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chinoliziny

bicylic, 10-membered ring structure with one tertiary nitrogen shared by both rings; found in the rauwolfia and other alkaloids.
CSP

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chinonreduktasy

NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductases. A family that includes three enzymes which are distinguished by their sensitivity to various inhibitors. EC 1.6.99.2 (NAD(P)H DEHYDROGENASE (QUINONE);) is a flavoprotein which reduces various quinones in the presence of NADH or NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol. EC 1.6.99.5 (NADH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADH, is inhibited by AMP and 2,4-dinitrophenol but not by dicoumarol or folic acid derivatives. EC 1.6.99.6 (NADPH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol and folic acid derivatives but not by 2,4-dinitrophenol.
MSH

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chinony

Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
MSH

benzene ring with 2 para keto groups.
CSP

A class of organic compounds with the base structure of quinone, an aromatic benzene molecule containing a double ketone functional group.
NCI

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paterčata

Five individuals derived from five FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.
MSH

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chinuklidiny

8-membered bridge compound with a tertiary nitrogen at one bridge point, and a cyclic keto group.
CSP

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chinuklidinylbenzilan

A high-affinity muscarinic antagonist commonly used as a tool in animal and tissue studies.
MSH

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chipazin

A pharmacologic congener of serotonin that contracts smooth muscle and has actions similar to those of tricyclic antidepressants. It has been proposed as an oxytocic.
MSH

A piperazine-based nonselective serotonin (5-HT) receptor agonist with antidepressant and oxytocic activities. Quipazine targets and binds to serotonin receptors, particularly to the 5HT2A and 5HT3 receptors. Serotonin receptor activation by quipazine may lead to smooth muscle contraction and antidepressant effects.
NCI

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R faktory

a class of plasmids in bacterial cells that promote resistance to agents such as antibiotics, metal ions, UV radiation, and bacteriophage.
CSP

A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
MSH

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králíci

The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
MSH

A white colored rabbit characterized by efficient superovulation and spontaneous formation of lymphoma. It is used as an animal model for Guillan-Barre syndrome in humans, toxicology, virology.
NCI

Various members of the family Leporidae, especially those of the genus Sylvilagus.
NCI

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rabies

Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.
MSH

acute infectious disease of the central nervous system affecting almost all mammals, including humans; it is caused by a rhabdovirus and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals; important animal vectors include the dog, cat, vampire bat, mongoose, skunk, wolf, raccoon, and fox.
CSP

A disease of the nervous system caused by the rabies virus. Rabies is marked by an increase in saliva production, abnormal behavior, and eventual paralysis and death.
NCI

Rabies is a deadly animal disease caused by a virus. It can happen in wild animals, including raccoons, skunks, bats and foxes, or in dogs, cats or farm animals. People get it from the bite of an infected animal.

In people, symptoms of rabies include fever, headache and fatigue, then confusion, hallucinations and paralysis. Once the symptoms begin, the disease is usually fatal. A series of shots can prevent rabies in people exposed to the virus. You need to get them right away. If an animal bites you, wash the wound well; then get medical care.

To help prevent rabies

  • Vaccinate your pet. Rabies vaccines are available for dogs, cats and farm animals
  • Don`t let pets roam
  • Don`t approach stray animals. Animals with rabies might be aggressive and vicious, or tired and weak

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


MEDLINEPLUS

A life-threatening viral infection caused by the neurotropic Rabies virus. It is transmitted to humans usually from a bite by an infected dog. The initial signs and symptoms include malaise, fever, and headache, followed by the central nervous system manifestations which include abrupt behavioral changes. Paralysis, lethargy, and coma follow the behavioral changes.
NCI

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rabies – vakcíny

vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and/or treat rabies.
CSP

Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
MSH

rabies vaccine, NOS


HL7V3.0

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virus rabies

The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
MSH

bullet shaped RNA virus; one of the most neurotropic of the viruses; etiologic agent of rabies.
CSP

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psík mývalovitý

The lone species in the genus Nyctereutes, family CANIDAE. It is found in the woodland zone from southeastern Siberia to Vietnam and on the main islands of Japan.
MSH

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mývalové

Carnivores of the genus Procyon of the family PROCYONIDAE. Two subgenera and seven species are currently recognized. They range from southern Canada to Panama and are found in several of the Caribbean Islands.
MSH

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rasy – vztahy mezi nimi

Cultural contacts between people of different races.
MSH

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Racial group

In the United States, federal standards for classifying data on race determine the categories used by federal agencies and exert a strong influence on categorization by state and local agencies and private sector organizations. The federal standards do not conceptually define race, and they recognize the absence of an anthropological or scientific basis for racial classification. Instead, the federal standards acknowledge that race is a social-political construct in which an individual`s own identification with one more race categories is preferred to observer identification. The standards use a variety of features to define five minimum race categories. Among these features are descent from “the original peoples” of a specified region or nation. The minimum race categories are American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and White. The federal standards stipulate that race data need not be limited to the five minimum categories, but any expansion must be collapsible to those categories.


HL7V3.0

In the United States, federal standards for classifying data on race determine the categories used by federal agencies and exert a strong influence on categorization by state and local agencies and private sector organizations. The federal standards do not conceptually define race, and they recognize the absence of an anthropological or scientific basis for racial classification. Instead, the federal standards acknowledge that race is a social-political construct in which an individual`s own identification with one more race categories is preferred to observer identification. The standards use a variety of features to define five minimum race categories. Among these features are descent from “the original peoples” of a specified region or nation. The minimum race categories are American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and White. The federal standards stipulate that race data need not be limited to the five minimum categories, but any expansion must be collapsible to those categories.

OpenIssue:This concept domain definition does not align with current vocabulary practices and is much too US-centric to be appropriate as a “universal” domain.


HL7V3.0

In the United States, federal standards for classifying data on race determine the categories used by federal agencies and exert a strong influence on categorization by state and local agencies and private sector organizations. The federal standards do not conceptually define race, and they recognize the absence of an anthropological or scientific basis for racial classification. Instead, the federal standards acknowledge that race is a social-political construct in which an individual`s own identification with one more race categories is preferred to observer identification. The standards use a variety of features to define five minimum race categories. Among these features are descent from “the original peoples” of a specified region or nation. The minimum race categories are American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and White. The federal standards stipulate that race data need not be limited to the five minimum categories, but any expansion must be collapsible to those categories.


HL7V3.0

An arbitrary classification of a taxonomic group that is a division of a species. It usually arises as a consequence of geographical isolation within a species and is characterized by shared heredity, physical attributes and behavior, and in the case of humans, by common history, nationality, or geographic distribution.
NCI

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raketové sporty

Games in which players use a racquet to hit a ball or similar type object.
MSH

Any sport where players use racquets to hit a ball or other object.
NCI

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radar

A system using beamed and reflected radio signals to and from an object in such a way that range, bearing, and other characteristics of the object may be determined.
MSH

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nervus radialis

A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
MSH

A large nerve that arises from the brachial plexus and enervates the extensor muscles and skin of the entire upper limb`s posterior aspect.
NCI

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elektromagnetické záření

emission and propagation of radiation associated with a periodically varying electric and magnetic field traveling at the speed of light; radiation characterized by quanta with no mass or charge.
CSP

Radiation that has both electric and magnetic fields and travels in waves. It comes from natural and man-made sources. Electromagnetic radiation can vary in strength from low energy to high energy. It includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, x-rays, and gamma rays.
NCI

Waves of oscillating electric and MAGNETIC FIELDS which move at right angles to each other and outward from the source.
MSH

The radiation of energy as transverse waves produced by moving charges.
NCI

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