Additional pages

flurandrenolon

A corticosteroid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. It is usually employed as a cream or an ointment, and is also used as a polyethylene tape with an adhesive. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p733)
MSH

A synthetic glucocorticoid with anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties. Flurandrenolide exerts its effects by interacting with specific cytoplasmic glucocorticoid receptors and subsequently activates glucocorticoid receptor mediated gene expression. The synthesis of certain anti-inflammatory proteins is induced while the synthesis of certain inflammatory mediators is inhibited. As a result, there is an overall reduction in chronic inflammation and autoimmune reactions.
NCI

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flurazepam

A benzodiazepine derivative used mainly as a hypnotic.
MSH

benzodiazepine derivative used mainly as a sedative and hypnotic in the treatment of insomnia.
CSP

A member of the benzodiazepines and a long-acting depressor of the central nervous system (CNS) with sedative and hypnotic effects. Flurazepam binds to a specific site on the benzodiazepine-gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A-chloride ionophore receptor complex located on the neuronal membrane. Binding causes an allosteric modification of the receptor thereby enhancing the affinity of GABA to the receptor leading to an increase in the frequency of chloride-channel opening events, which leads to an increase in chloride ion conductance, neuronal hyperpolarization, inhibition of the action potential, and a decrease in neuronal excitability. By modulating binding of the GABA inhibitory neurotransmitter to GABA-A receptors in the ascending reticular activating system, flurazepam blocks arousal of the cortical and limbic system, thereby exerting its sedative and hypnotic effect.
NCI

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flurbiprofen

An anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic of the phenylalkynoic acid series. It has been shown to reduce bone resorption in periodontal disease by inhibiting CARBONIC ANHYDRASE.
MSH

A derivative of propionic acid, and a phenylalkanoic acid derivative of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with analgesic, antiinflammatory and antipyretic effects. Flurbiprofen non-selectively binds to and inhibits cyclooxygenase (COX). This results in a reduction of arachidonic acid conversion into prostaglandins that are involved in the regulation of pain, inflammation and fever. This NSAID also inhibits carbonic anhydrase, thereby reducing the production of hydrogen and bicarbonate ions. Upon ocular administration, flurbiprofen may reduce bicarbonate ion concentrations leading to a decrease in the production of aqueous humor, thereby lowering intraocular pressure. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39245&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39245&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C508″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A derivative of propionic acid, and a phenylalkanoic acid derivative of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with analgesic, antiinflammatory and antipyretic effects. Flurbiprofen non-selectively binds to and inhibits cyclooxygenase (COX). This results in a reduction of arachidonic acid conversion into prostaglandins that are involved in the regulation of pain, inflammation and fever. This NSAID also inhibits carbonic anhydrase, thereby reducing the production of hydrogen and bicarbonate ions. Upon ocular administration, flurbiprofen may reduce bicarbonate ion concentrations leading to a decrease in the production of aqueous humor, thereby lowering intraocular pressure.
NCI

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flurothyl

A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.
MSH

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zrudnutí

A transient reddening of the face that may be due to fever, certain drugs, exertion, stress, or a disease process.
MSH

A disorder characterized by episodic reddening of the face.
NCI

Flush


HL7V3.0

A sudden reddening of the face.
NCI

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fluspirilen

A long-acting injectable antipsychotic agent used for chronic schizophrenia.
MSH

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flutamid

An antiandrogen with about the same potency as cyproterone in rodent and canine species.
MSH

An anticancer drug that is a type of antiandrogen.
NCI

A toluidine derivative and nonsteroidal antiandrogen that is structurally related to bicalutamide and nilutamide. Flutamide and its more potent active metabolite 2-hydroxyflutamide competitively block dihydrotestosterone binding at androgen receptors, forming inactive complexes which cannot translocate into the cell nucleus. Formation of inactive receptors inhibits androgen-dependent DNA and protein synthesis, resulting in tumor cell growth arrest or transient tumor regression. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39811&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39811&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C509″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A toluidine derivative and a nonsteroidal antiandrogen that is structurally related to bicalutamide and nilutamide. Flutamide and its more potent active metabolite 2-hydroxyflutamide competitively block dihydrotestosterone binding at androgen receptors, forming inactive complexes which cannot translocate into the cell nucleus. Formation of inactive receptors inhibits androgen-dependent DNA and protein synthesis, resulting in tumor cell growth arrest or transient tumor regression. (NCI04)
NCI

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flavinmononukleotid

A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.
MSH

riboflavin 5`-phosphate; acts as a coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes, including NADH dehydrogenase, serving as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (FMN) and reduced (FMNH2).
CSP

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pěnové buňky

Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.
MSH

Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells. (MeSH)
NCI

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fokální dermální hypoplazie

A genetic skin disease characterized by hypoplasia of the dermis, herniations of fat, and hand anomalies. It is found exclusively in females and transmitted as an X-linked dominant trait.
MSH

A genetic multisystem disorder caused by mutations in the PORCN gene. It is characterized by atrophy and hypoplasia of skin, eye defects, face defects, skeletal abnormalities, and limb malformations.
NCI

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fokální infekce zubní

Secondary or systemic infections due to dissemination throughout the body of microorganisms whose primary focus of infection lies in the periodontal tissues.
MSH

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epilepsie parciální motorická

A simple partial seizure consisting of clonus or spasm of a muscle or muscle group; it may be single or in a continuous and repetitive series or may spread to adjacent muscles.
NCI

A disorder characterized by recurrent localized paroxysmal discharges of cerebral neurons that give rise to seizures that have motor manifestations. The majority of partial motor seizures originate in the FRONTAL LOBE (see also EPILEPSY, FRONTAL LOBE). Motor seizures may manifest as tonic or clonic movements involving the face, one limb or one side of the body. A variety of more complex patterns of movement, including abnormal posturing of extremities, may also occur.
MSH

A simple partial seizure consisting of clonus or spasm of a muscle or muscle group; it may be single or in a continuous and repetitive series or may spread to adjacent muscles.
NCI

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zjišťování skupinových postojů

A method of data collection and a qualitative research tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.
MSH

method of data collection and a qualitative research tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.
CSP

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kyselina listová

A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
MSH

A nutrient in the vitamin B complex that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Folate helps to make red blood cells. It is found in whole-grain breads and cereals, liver, green vegetables, orange juice, lentils, beans, and yeast. Folate is water-soluble (can dissolve in water) and must be taken in every day. Not enough folate can cause anemia (a condition in which the number of red blood cells is below normal), diseases of the heart and blood vessels, and defects in the brain and spinal cord in a fetus. Folate is being studied with vitamin B12 in the prevention and treatment of cancer.
NCI

Synthetic folate in fortified foods and supplements containing a single glutamate molecule.
NCI

Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. When a woman has enough folic acid in her body before and during pregnancy, it can prevent major birth defects of her baby`s brain or spine.

Foods with folic acid in them include leafy green vegetables, fruits, dried beans, peas and nuts. Enriched breads, cereals and other grain products also contain folic acid. If you don`t get enough folic acid from the foods you eat, you can also take it as a dietary supplement.

NIH: National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements


MEDLINEPLUS

A collective term for pteroylglutamic acids and their oligoglutamic acid conjugates. As a natural water-soluble substance, folic acid is involved in carbon transfer reactions of amino acid metabolism, in addition to and purine and pyrimidine synthesis, and is essential for hematopoiesis and red blood cell production. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39641&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39641&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C510″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A collective term for pteroylglutamic acids and their oligoglutamic acid conjugates. As a natural water-soluble substance, folic acid is involved in carbon transfer reactions of amino acid metabolism, in addition to purine and pyrimidine synthesis, and is essential for hematopoiesis and red blood cell production. (NCI05)
NCI

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kyselina listová – antagonisté

Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
MSH

inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase, which converts dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate; frequently used in cancer chemotherapy.
CSP

A substance that blocks the activity of folic acid. Folate antagonists are used to treat cancer.
NCI

A compound with a chemical structure similar to folic acid. Folate antagonists inhibit one or more folate-dependent enzymes, resulting in decreased DNA, RNA and protein synthesis.
NCI

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nedostatek kyseliny listové

A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)
MSH

state in which folate is absent or in diminished amount relative to the normal requirement of an organism or a biologic system.
CSP

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lidové léčitelství

systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation; the concept includes mystical and magical rituals, herbal therapy, and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.
CSP

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folklór

The common orally transmitted traditions, myths, festivals, songs, superstitions, and stories of all peoples.
MSH

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folikulární atrézie

The degeneration and resorption of an OVARIAN FOLLICLE before it reaches maturity and ruptures.
MSH

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folikulární cysta

Cyst due to the occlusion of the duct of a follicle or small gland.
MSH

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folikulární tekutina

The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.
MSH

Transudate contained in the vesicular ovarian follicle (TA) (Graafian follicle).
UWDA

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folikulární fáze

The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.
MSH

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folikulitida

Inflammation of follicles, primarily hair follicles.
MSH

Inflammation of a follicle (a sac or pouch-like cavity), usually a hair follicle.
NCI

Inflammation of the hair follicles. Causes include excessive perspiration, skin infections, and skin wounds.
NCI

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následné studie

Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
MSH

Study in which persons exposed to risk or given a designated preventive or therapeutic regimen are observed over a period or at intervals to determine the outcome of the exposure or regimen. (On-line Medical Dictionary)
NCI

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potraviny

Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
MSH

anything which, when taken into the body, serves to nourish or build up the tissues or to supply body heat.
CSP

A group of materials of either plant, animal or artificial origin containing essential body nutrients that can be ingested by an organism to produce energy, stimulate growth, and maintain life.
NCI

A group of substances which are consumed by humans and animals.
NCI

A substance consumed by humans and animals for nutritional purposes. EXAMPLE(S): broccoli, donuts, pet treats
NCI

Description:The introduction of material into a subject with the intent of providing nutrition or other dietary supplements (e.g. minerals or vitamins).


HL7V3.0

Processed or unprocessed substances obtained from animal, plant, microorganism and mining source that provide nutrients for living organisms to maintain biological processes or functions.
NCI

Naturally occurring, processed or manufactured entities that are primarily used as food for humans and animals.


HL7V3.0

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potravinářské přísady

Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.
MSH

substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed; includes antioxidants, food preservatives, colorings, flavorings, antiinfective agents, and excipients and other similarly used substances.
CSP

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Wereld Voedsel- en Landbouworganisatie, Verenigde Naties

Founded in 1945, FAO leads international efforts to defeat hunger. FAO acts as a neutral forum where all nations meet as equals to negotiate agreements and debate policy. FAO is also a source of knowledge and information. FAO`s activities comprise four main areas: putting information within reach, sharing policy expertise, providing a meeting place for nations, bringing knowledge to the field. (from FAO)
NCI

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potravinářská barviva

Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.
MSH

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potraviny – kontaminace

The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
MSH

presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances such as chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
CSP

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potrava – deprivace

The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.
MSH

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