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doučování

Specialized instruction for students deviating from the expected norm.
MSH

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indukce remise

Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
MSH

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remise spontánní

A spontaneous diminution or abatement of a disease over time, without formal treatment.
MSH

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ledvinné látky

Drugs used for their effects on the kidneys` regulation of body fluid composition and volume. The most commonly used are the diuretics. Also included are drugs used for their antidiuretic and uricosuric actions, for their effects on the kidneys` clearance of other drugs, and for diagnosis of renal function.
MSH

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arteria renalis

A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
MSH

branch of the abdominal or ventral aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters in vertebrates.
CSP

The main blood vessel that supplies blood to a kidney and its nearby adrenal gland and ureter. There is a renal artery for each kidney.
NCI

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arteria renalis – obstrukce

Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).
MSH

blocking or clogging of the renal artery, which is the branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
CSP

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renální oběh

The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
MSH

vessels, supply, and flow of blood through the vascular system of the kidney.
CSP

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selhání ledvin

inability of a kidney to excrete metabolites at normal plasma levels under conditions of normal loading or inability to retain electrolytes under conditions of normal intake.
CSP

Healthy kidneys clean your blood by removing excess fluid, minerals and wastes. They also make hormones that keep your bones strong and your blood healthy. But if the kidneys are damaged, they don`t work properly. Harmful wastes can build up in your body. Your blood pressure may rise. Your body may retain excess fluid and not make enough red blood cells. This is called kidney failure.

If your kidneys fail, you need treatment to replace the work they normally do. The treatment options are dialysis or a kidney transplant. Each treatment has benefits and drawbacks. No matter which treatment you choose, you`ll need to make some changes in your life, including how you eat and plan your activities. But with the help of healthcare providers, family and friends, most people with kidney failure can lead full and active lives.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

A severe irreversible decline in the ability of kidneys to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism.
MSH

Acute or chronic condition, characterized by the inability of the kidneys to adequately filter the blood substances, resulting in uremia and electrolyte imbalances. Acute renal failure is usually associated with oliguria or anuria, hyperkalemia, and pulmonary edema. Chronic renal failure is irreversible and requires hemodialysis.
NCI

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renální osteodystrofie

Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.
MSH

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ledviny – vrozené poruchy tubulárního transportu

Genetic defects in the selective or non-selective transport functions of the KIDNEY TUBULES.
MSH

genetically determined disorders of the reabsorptive functions of the kidney with regard to specific nephron segments responsible for specific transport functions, classifiable by proximal nephron function, loop of Henle function, and distal nephron function; transport defects can be selective or nonselective.
CSP

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venae renales

Short thick veins which return blood from the kidneys to the vena cava.
MSH

The veins which return blood from the kidneys to the vena cava.
NCI

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renin

A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.
MSH

do not confuse with “rennin” which is another name for CHYMOSIN, EC 3.4.23.4.
CSP

an enzyme released by the kidneys that helps regulate blood pressure
CHV

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renin-angiotensin systém

A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.
MSH

blood pressure, fluid volume, and sodium balance regulating system of interacting components that include renin, angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme, angiotensin I and II, and angiotensinase.
CSP

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chymosin

The predominant milk-clotting enzyme from the true stomach or abomasum of the suckling calf. It is secreted as an inactive precursor called prorennin and converted in the acid environment of the stomach to the active enzyme. EC 3.4.23.4.
MSH

do not confuse with RENIN, EC 3.4.23.15.
CSP

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reoperace

A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
MSH

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Reoviridae

Respiratory Enteric Orphan viruses; infects vertebrates, invertebrates and plants; genome is linear dsRNA; replication occurs in cytoplasm, causing development of perinuclear virus inclusions.
CSP

A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.
MSH

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Reoviridae – infekce

diseases resulting from a infection with the Reoviridae family of viruses; includes diseases such as African horse sickness, Bluetongue, Colorado tick fever, Rotavirus infections or diseases, Orbivirus infections or diseases and Cypovirus infections or diseases.
CSP

Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.
MSH

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savčí orthoreovirus 3

A serotype of ORTHOREOVIRUS, MAMMALIAN causing serious pathology in laboratory rodents, characterized by diarrhea, oily coat, jaundice, and multiple organ involvement.
MSH

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reperfúze

Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.
MSH

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reperfúzní poškození

Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
MSH

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poranění z opakovaného přetěžování

Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.
MSH

damage inflicted on any part of the body due to overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities.
CSP

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repetitivní sekvence nukleových kyselin

Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
MSH

sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies.
CSP

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replantace

Restoration of an organ or other structure to its original site.
MSH

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replikon

Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
MSH

a unit of DNA that contains a DNA replication origin and a termination point and is capable of self-replication.
CSP

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represe (psychologie)

active mental process of keeping out and ejecting, banishing from consciousness, ideas or impulses that are unacceptable to it.
CSP

The active mental process of keeping out and ejecting, banishing from consciousness, ideas or impulses that are unacceptable to it.
MSH

A psychological mechanism utilized by humans to shield themselves from painful memories or traumatic events. This protection entails the exclusion of memories or thoughts from consciousness.
NCI

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represe-senzibilizace

Defense mechanisms involving approach and avoidance responses to threatening stimuli. The sensitizing process involves intellectualization in approaching or controlling the stimulus whereas repression involves unconscious denial in avoiding the stimulus.
MSH

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represorové proteiny

Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
MSH

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reprodukovatelnost výsledků

The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
MSH

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rozmnožování

The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
MSH

total process by which organisms produce offspring.
CSP

The production by an organism of new individuals that contain some portion of their genetic material inherited from that organism. [GOC:go_curators, GOC:isa_complete, ISBN:0198506732 “Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology”]
GO

The generation of offspring by living organisms.
NCI

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reprodukce – techniky

Techniques used in human and animal reproduction.
NCI

Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).
MSH

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