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rhodopsin

A purplish-red, light-sensitive pigment found in RETINAL ROD CELLS of most vertebrates. It is a complex consisting of a molecule of ROD OPSIN and a molecule of 11-cis retinal (RETINALDEHYDE). Rhodopsin exhibits peak absorption wavelength at about 500 nm.
MSH

photoreceptor protein found in retinal rods; it is a complex formed by the binding of retinaldehyde, the oxidized form of retinol, to the protein opsin and undergoes a series of complex reactions in response to visible light resulting in the transmission of nerve impulses to the brain.
CSP

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Rhodospirillaceae

A family of phototrophic bacteria, in the order Rhodospirillales, isolated from stagnant water and mud.
MSH

A taxonomic family of photosynthesizing bacterium, the majority of which are purple non-sulfur bacterium, in the phylum Proteobacteria that includes the genera Azospirillium, Inquilinus and Rhodospirillum, among others.
NCI

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Rhodospirillales

order of photosynthetic bacteria representing a physiological community of predominantly aquatic bacteria.
CSP

An order of photosynthetic bacteria representing a physiological community of predominantly aquatic bacteria.
MSH

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Rhodospirillum

from the Rhodospirillaceae, a genus of gram negative, spiral bacteria that possesses internal photosynthetic membranes; organisms divide by binary fission, are motile by means of polar flagella, and are found in aquatic environments.
CSP

A genus of gram-negative, spiral bacteria that possesses internal photosynthetic membranes. Its organisms divide by binary fission, are motile by means of polar flagella, and are found in aquatic environments.
MSH

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Rhodospirillum rubrum

Vibrio- to spiral-shaped phototrophic bacteria found in stagnant water and mud exposed to light.
MSH

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rombencefalon

The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.
MSH

part of the brain developed from the posterior of the three primary brain vesicles of the embryonic neural tube; it comprises the metencephalon (cerebellum and pons) and myelencephalon (medulla oblongata).
CSP

Organ component of neuraxis that has as its parts the pons, cerebellum and medulla oblongata . Examples: There is only one hindbrain.
FMA

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Rhonchi

An abnormal sound similar to snoring heard on auscultation of the bronchial airways, suggesting a partial obstruction due to thick secretions, a muscular spasm, or a neoplasm.
NCI

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rebarbora

The root of this plant has been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems. It may have anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. The scientific name is Rheum palmatum or Rheum officinale.
NCI

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Toxicodendron

A genus (formerly part of Rhus genus) of shrubs, vines, or trees that yields a highly allergenic oleoresin which causes a severe contact dermatitis (DERMATITIS, TOXICODENDRON). The most toxic species are Toxicodendron vernix (poison sumac), T. diversilobum (poison oak), and T. radicans (poison ivy). T. vernicifera yields a useful varnish from which certain enzymes (laccases) are obtained.
MSH

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rytidoplastika

Plastic surgery performed, usually by excision of skin, for the elimination of wrinkles from the skin.
MSH

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ribavirin

A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.
MSH

1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamid e; antiretroviral agent with potential efficacy against AIDS.
CSP

A drug used to treat respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in the lungs.
NCI

A synthetic nucleoside analogue of ribofuranosyl with antiviral activity. Ribavirin incorporates into viral nucleic acid, inhibits viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis, induces viral genome mutations, and inhibits normal viral replication. Ribavirin shows activity against a variety of RNA viruses, especially hepatitis C virus. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40325&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40325&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C807″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A synthetic nucleoside analogue of ribofuranosyl with antiviral activity. Ribavirin incorporates into viral nucleic acid, inhibits viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis, induces viral genome mutations, and inhibits normal viral replication. Ribavirin shows activity against a variety of RNA viruses, especially hepatitis C virus. (NCI04)
NCI

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ribitol

A sugar alcohol formed by the reduction of ribose.
MSH

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riboflavin

Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.
MSH

water soluble B vitamin; precursor of FMN and FAD.
CSP

Water-soluble vitamin that is a coenzyme in numerous oxidation-reduction reactions. (DRI)
NCI

A nutrient in the vitamin B complex that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Riboflavin helps make red blood cells, helps some enzymes work properly, and keeps skin, nails, and hair healthy. It is found in milk, eggs, malted barley, organ meats, yeast, and leafy vegetables. Riboflavin is water-soluble (can dissolve in water) and must be taken in every day. Not enough riboflavin can cause anemia (a low number of red blood cells), mouth sores, and skin problems. Amounts of riboflavin may be higher in the blood of patients with some types of cancer.
NCI

An essential human nutrient that is a heat-stable and water-soluble flavin belonging to the vitamin B family. Riboflavin is a precursor of the coenzymes flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). These coenzymes are of vital importance in normal tissue respiration, pyridoxine activation, tryptophan to niacin conversion, fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism, and glutathione reductase mediated detoxification. Riboflavin may also be involved in maintaining erythrocyte integrity. This vitamin is essential for healthy skin, nails, and hair. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=38330&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=38330&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C808″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

An essential human nutrient that is a heat-stable and water-soluble flavin belonging to the vitamin B family. Riboflavin is a precursor of the coenzymes flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). These coenzymes are of vital importance in normal tissue respiration, pyridoxine activation, tryptophan to niacin conversion, fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism, and glutathione reductase mediated detoxification. Riboflavin may also be involved in maintaining erythrocyte integrity. This vitamin is essential for healthy skin, nails, and hair.
NCI

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riboflavin – nedostatek

A dietary deficiency of riboflavin causing a syndrome chiefly marked by cheilitis, angular stomatitis, glossitis associated with a purplish red or magenta-colored tongue that may show fissures, corneal vascularization, dyssebacia, and anemia. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

condition due to a deficiency of riboflavin (vitamin B12) which is associated with inadequate consumption of riboflavin rich foods; produces lesions of skin, digestive tract and nervous system; usually part of a multiple nutrient deficiency.
CSP

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riboflavinsynthasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of riboflavin from two molecules of 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine, utilizing a four-carbon fragment from one molecule which is transferred to the second molecule. EC 2.5.1.9.
MSH

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ribonukleasa pankreatická

An enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage of pancreatic ribonucleic acids to 3`-phosphomono- and oligonucleotides ending in cytidylic or uridylic acids with 2`,3`-cyclic phosphate intermediates. EC 3.1.27.5.
MSH

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ribonukleasy

Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
MSH

Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of RNA
NCI

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ribonukleoproteiny

Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
MSH

substance composed of both protein and ribonucleic acid.
CSP

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ribonukleosiddifosfátreduktasa

An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of 2`-deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides using NADPH as the ultimate electron donor. The deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates are used in DNA synthesis. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.17.4.1.
MSH

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ribonukleosidy

Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

nucleoside in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose.
CSP

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ribonukleotidreduktasy

interconverts ribonucleotides (RNA precursors) and deoxyribonucleotides (DNA precursors) rate limiting to DNA replication in rapidly dividing cells, and therefore a potential target of antineoplastic drugs.
CSP

Ribonucleotide Reductase is a heterodimeric cytoplasmic enzyme essential in dividing cells that reduces ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotide precursors for DNA synthesis in S phase. It consists of two subunits, M1 Chain and M2 Chain. Complex allosteric control, mediated by deoxynucleoside triphosphates, and by ATP bound to the M1 subunit prevents DNA replication and cell proliferation. A substrate specificity site and a catalytic activity site regulate enzyme activity. A substrate-binding catalytic site on M1 is only formed in the presence of M2. Enzyme activity closely correlates with the cellular rate of growth and appears to vary with the cell cycle. (NCI)
NCI

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ribonukleotidy

Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

nucleotide in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose.
CSP

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ribosa

A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.
MSH

aldopentose found in riboflavin and ribonucleic acid (RNA) as well as in free ribonucleosides and ribonucleotides.
CSP

A pentose which is an epimer at C-3 (in Fisher projection) of xylose. Structurally, it is a xylose with the OH and H groups interchanged at carbon-3.
NCI

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ribosamonofosfáty

Ribose substituted in the 1-, 3-, or 5-position by a phosphoric acid moiety.
MSH

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ribosafosfátpyrofosfokinasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate from ATP and ribose-5-phosphate. EC 2.7.6.1.
MSH

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ribozomální proteiny

Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.
MSH

diverse family of proteins found in ribosomes.
CSP

Proteins present within the ribosomal subunits. In eukaryotes there are 50 proteins in the large subunit and 33 in the small subunit. (from On-line Medical Dictionary)
NCI

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ribozómy

Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
MSH

class of multicomponent structures found in all cells, in mitochondria, and chloroplasts with roles both in the genetic translation of transcripts and in the manufacture and secretion of the proteins.
CSP

An intracellular organelle, about 200 A in diameter, consisting of RNA and protein. It is the site of protein biosynthesis resulting from translation of messenger RNA (mRNA). It consists of two subunits, one large and one small, each containing only protein and RNA. Both the ribosome and its subunits are characterized by their sedimentation coefficients, expressed in Svedberg units (symbol: S). Hence, the prokaryotic ribosome (70S) comprises a large (50S) subunit and a small (30S) subunit, while the eukaryotic ribosome (80S) comprises a large (60S) subunit and a small (40S) subunit. Two sites on the ribosomal large subunit are involved in translation, namely the aminoacyl site (A site) and peptidyl site (P site). Ribosomes from prokaryotes, eukaryotes, mitochondria, and chloroplasts have characteristically distinct ribosomal proteins. [ISBN:0198506732 “Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology”]
GO

In biology, a structure found inside cells that is involved in making proteins. Ribosomes help link amino acids together to form proteins.
NCI

Ribosomes are small organelles composed of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and 80 some different proteins. rRNA is synthesized in the nucleolus and the ribosomal subunits are assembled there from rRNA and imported cytoplasmic made proteins. Once assembled, the subunits pass through the nuclear pores to the cytoplasm where they take part in protein synthesis. Some ribosomes are free in the cytoplasm and can be recruited to a polyribosomal structure when a messenger RNA (mRNA) strand is to be translated into a cytoplasmic protein. Other ribosomes are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum where the protein is formed within the interior to the endoplasmic reticulum. These proteins are destined for secretion, storage or incorporation into membranes.
NCI

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ribostamycin

A broad-spectrum antimicrobial isolated from Streptomyces ribosifidicus.
MSH

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žebra

any of the paired elastic arches of bone that extend from the thoracic vertebrae toward the median line on the ventral aspect of the trunk, forming the major part of the thoracic skeleton; collectively called costae.
CSP

see:http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/MBrowser.html
AOT

Any one of the paired bones, 12 on either side, extending from the thoracic vertebrae toward the median line on the ventral aspect of the trunk. The long curved bones which form the rib cage. Generally, ribs 1 to 7 are connected to the sternum` by their costal cartilages and are called true ribs, whereas ribs 8 to 12 are termed false ribs. (NCI)
NCI

Any one of the paired bones, 12 on either side, extending from the thoracic vertebrae toward the median line on the ventral aspect of the trunk. The long curved bones which form the rib cage. Generally, ribs 1 to 7 are connected to the sternum` by their costal cartilages and are called true ribs, whereas ribs 8 to 12 are termed false ribs.
NCI

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ribulosabisfosfátkarboxylasa

A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
MSH

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