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látky proti demonstrantům chemické

Chemical substances which are employed during a riot in order to control or disperse the rioting parties.
MSH

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násilnosti

A form of violent crowd behavior which expresses the emotional release of resentments and prejudices, usually relevant to grievances toward the social system.
MSH

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riziko

The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
MSH

Definition:An act that may occur in the future and which is regarded as undesirable

Examples:Increased risk of DVT, at risk for sub-acute bacterial endocarditis.

UsageNotes:Note: An observation in RSK mood expresses the undesirable act, and not the underlying risk factor. A risk factor that is present (e.g. obesity, smoking, etc) should be expressed in event mood. INT (intent) reflects a plan for the future, which is a declaration to do something. This contrasts with RSK (risk), which is the potential that something negative will occur that may or may not ever happen. GOL (goal) reflects a hope to achieve something. EXPEC (expectation) is the prediction of a positive or negative event. This contrasts with RSK (risk), which is the potential that something negative will occur that may or may not ever happen, and may not be expected to happen.


HL7V3.0

The potential future harm that may arise from some present action. It is often combined or confused with the probability of an event which is seen as undesirable.
NCI

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rizikové faktory

An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
MSH

Something that increases the chance of developing a disease. Some examples of risk factors for cancer are age, a family history of certain cancers, use of tobacco products, being exposed to radiation or certain chemicals, infection with certain viruses or bacteria, and certain genetic changes.
NCI

Any aspect of an individual`s life, behavior, an environmental exposure, or an inborn or inherited characteristic that increases the likelihood of a disease, condition or injury.
NCI

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rizikové řízení

The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)
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riskování

Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
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ristocetin

An antibiotic mixture of two components, A and B, obtained from Nocardia lurida (or the same substance produced by any other means). It is no longer used clinically because of its toxicity. It causes platelet agglutination and blood coagulation and is used to assay those functions in vitro.
MSH

antibiotic substances produced by the fermentation of Nocardia lurida; formerly used in treatment of severe staphylococcal infections resistant to other antibiotics; causes platelet agglutination and blood coagulation.
CSP

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ritodrin

An adrenergic beta-2 agonist used to control PREMATURE LABOR.
MSH

A phenethylamine derivative with tocolytic activity. Ritodrine binds to and activates beta-2 adrenergic receptors of myometrial cells in the uterus, which decreases the intensity and frequency of uterine contractions. Specifically, ritodrine probably activates adenyl cyclase, thereby increasing production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), which in turn enhances the efflux of calcium from vascular smooth muscle cells. A lack of intracellular calcium prevents uterine myometrial contractions. In addition, this agent may directly inactivate myosin light chain kinase, a critical enzyme necessary for the initiation of muscle contractions.
NCI

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RNA

ribonucleic acid; polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached; RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity.
CSP

A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
MSH

One of two types of nucleic acid made by cells. Ribonucleic acid contains information that has been copied from DNA (the other type of nucleic acid). Cells make several different forms of ribonucleic acid, and each form has a specific job in the cell. Many forms of ribonucleic acid have functions related to making proteins. Ribonucleic acid is also the genetic material of some viruses instead of DNA. Ribonucleic acid can be made in the laboratory and used in research studies.
NCI

Single-stranded long chain of nucleotides containing ribose. It is the end product of DNA transcription by the enzyme RNA polymerase. It is essential in protein synthesis.
NCI

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RNA cap analogy

Analogs of RNA cap compounds which do not have a positive charge. These compounds inhibit the initiation of translation of both capped and uncapped messenger RNA.
MSH

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RNA caps

Nucleic acid structures found on the 5` end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
MSH

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RNA-nukleotidyltransferasy

Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.
MSH

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fágy RNA

Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host`s surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
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RNA-polymerasa I

A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
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RNA-polymerasa II

A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
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RNA-polymerasa III

A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.
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DNA řízené RNA-polymerasy

Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3`-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
MSH

RNA polymerases comprise a group of enzymes that catalyze extension, one nucleotide at a time, of the 3 prime-end of an RNA strand along a complementary DNA template.
NCI

Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed stepwise addition of ribonucleotides to the 3` end of a growing RNA chain using a single-stranded DNA template. The reaction is important in the flow of information from DNA to proteins. Three different forms of the polymerase have been identified and characterized.
NCI

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RNA – prekursory

RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
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RNA sondy

RNA, usually prepared by transcription from cloned DNA, which complements a specific mRNA or DNA and is generally used for studies of virus genes, distribution of specific RNA in tissues and cells, integration of viral DNA into genomes, transcription, etc. Whereas DNA PROBES are preferred for use at a more macroscopic level for detection of the presence of DNA/RNA from specific species or subspecies, RNA probes are preferred for genetic studies. Conventional labels for the RNA probe include radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. RNA probes may be further divided by category into plus-sense RNA probes, minus-sense RNA probes, and antisense RNA probes.
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RNA – úpravy posttranskripční

Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
MSH

any alterations made to primary RNA transcripts before leaving the nucleus as mature mRNA; e.g., removing of introns, splicing of exons, addition of cap or a poly-A tail.
CSP

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RNA-replikasa

An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3`- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
MSH

An enzyme that catalyzes the template-directed addition of ribonucleotides to the 3` end of a growing RNA chain. The enzyme utilizes single-stranded RNA as a template.
NCI

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RNA splicing

The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
MSH

removal of introns from a primary transcript and the subsequent joining of exons in the production of a mature RNA molecule.
CSP

The process of removing sections of the primary RNA transcript to remove sequences not present in the mature form of the RNA and joining the remaining sections to form the mature form of the RNA. [GOC:krc, GOC:mah]
GO

The process by which introns, the noncoding regions of genes, are excised out of the primary messenger RNA transcript, and the exons (i.e., coding regions) are joined together to generate mature messenger RNA. The latter serves as the template for synthesis of a specific protein.
NCI

Removal of introns from mRNA precursors and the reattachment or annealing of exons.
NCI

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RNA-viry

Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
MSH

viruses whose genetic material is RNA; can be broken up into several categories, negative sense ssRNA viruses, positive sense ssRNA viruses and naked RNA viruses.
CSP

A virus whose genome consists of RNA.
NCI

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RNA bakteriální

ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
CSP

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RNA dvouvláknová

RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
MSH

RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA; most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop; some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
CSP

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RNA fungální

Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
MSH

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RNA heterogenní nukleární

Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.
MSH

nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus; some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA, however, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.
CSP

The name originally given to large RNA molecules found in the nucleus, which are now known to be unedited messenger RNA transcripts, or pre-mRNAs. (BioTech Life Science Dictionary)
NCI

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messenger RNA

RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3` end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
MSH

RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis; eukaryotic messenger RNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation.
CSP

A type of RNA found in cells. Messenger RNA molecules carry the genetic information needed to make proteins. They carry the information from the DNA in the nucleus of the cell to the cytoplasm where the proteins are made.
NCI

A class of RNA molecule containing protein-coding information in its nucleotide sequence that can be translated into the amino acid sequence of a protein.
NCI

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RNA nádorová

RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
MSH

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RNA nukleární

RNA molecules found in the nucleus either associated with chromosomes or in the nucleoplasm.
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