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Sphaerotilus

A genus of gram-negative, sheathed, rod-shaped bacteria in the family COMAMONADACEAE. They are closely related to LEPTOTHRIX.
MSH

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Sphagnum

A plant genus of the family Sphagnaceae, order Sphagnales, subclass Sphagnidae, class SPHAGNOPSIDA.
MSH

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klínová kost

An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).
MSH

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sinus sphenoidalis

One of the paired air spaces located in the body of the SPHENOID BONE behind the ETHMOID BONE in the middle of the skull. Sphenoid sinus communicates with the posterosuperior part of NASAL CAVITY on the same side.
MSH

A type of paranasal sinus (a hollow space in the bones around the nose). There are two large sphenoid sinuses in the sphenoid bone, which is behind the nose between the eyes. The sphenoid sinuses are lined with cells that make mucus to keep the nose from drying out.
NCI

Either of the paired paranasal sinuses, located in the anterior part of the body of the sphenoid bone and communicating with the superior meatus of the nasal cavity on the same side.
NCI

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sinusitis sphenoidalis

Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the SPHENOID SINUS. Isolated sphenoid sinusitis is uncommon. It usually occurs in conjunction with other paranasal sinusitis.
MSH

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sférocyty

Small, abnormal spherical red blood cells with more than the normal amount of hemoglobin.
MSH

Small, abnormal spherical red blood cells with more than the normal amount of hemoglobin. (MeSH)
NCI

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sférocytóza dědičná

A familial congenital hemolytic anemia characterized by numerous abnormally shaped erythrocytes which are generally spheroidal. The erythrocytes have increased osmotic fragility and are abnormally permeable to sodium ions.
MSH

autosomal dominant trait marked by splenomegaly, jaundice, and fragile, spheroid erythrocytes which are prematurely cleared by the spleen; anemia is usually mild; treatment is splenectomy.
CSP

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sféroplasty

Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.
MSH

Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round. (MeSH)
NCI

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sfinkterotomie transhepatická

Surgery of the smooth muscle sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla to relieve blocked biliary or pancreatic ducts.
MSH

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sfingolipidózy

A group of inherited metabolic disorders characterized by the intralysosomal accumulation of SPHINGOLIPIDS primarily in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and to a variable degree in the visceral organs. They are classified by the enzyme defect in the degradation pathway and the substrate accumulation (or storage). Clinical features vary in subtypes but neurodegeneration is a common sign.
MSH

lysosomal storage diseases characterized by abnormal storage of spingolipids.
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sfingolipidy

A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)
MSH

family of ceramides with various hydrophilic, O-linked head groups; found in membranes, especially in neural tissue.
CSP

A class of dietary lipids containing a long-chained sphingosine group (unsaturated amino alcohol with formula C18H37NO2), fatty acids bound to the NH2 group as an amide, and either sugars or phosphoric acid and alcohols bound to the primary hydroxy group .
NCI

Any lipid derived from the aliphatic amino alcohol sphingosine, in which a single fatty acid is covalently bound to sphingosine via an amide linkage. Various ester-linked substituents can result in generation of ceramides, sphingomyelins and glycosphingolipids.
NCI

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sfingomyelinfosfodiesterasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide (N-acylsphingosine) plus choline phosphate. A defect in this enzyme leads to NIEMANN-PICK DISEASE. EC 3.1.4.12.
MSH

catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide defect in this enzyme leads to Niemann-Pick disease.
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sfingomyeliny

A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
MSH

ceramide with phosphocholine head group.
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sfingosin

An amino alcohol with a long unsaturated hydrocarbon chain. Sphingosine and its derivative sphinganine are the major bases of the sphingolipids in mammals. (Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

long chain (C18) aminoalcohol found in sphingolipids.
CSP

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koření

The dried seeds, bark, root, stems, buds, leaves, or fruit of aromatic plants used to season food.
MSH

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pavoučí jedy

Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
MSH

poison produced by spiders, toxic to other living organisms.
CSP

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pavouci

Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)
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spinové značení

Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
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spina bifida cystica

A form of spinal dysraphism associated with a protruding cyst made up of either meninges (i.e., a MENINGOCELE) or meninges in combination with spinal cord tissue (i.e., a MENINGOMYELOCELE). These lesions are frequently associated with spinal cord dysfunction, HYDROCEPHALUS, and SYRINGOMYELIA. (From Davis et al., Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp224-5)
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mícha

Caudalmost subdivision of neuraxis that consists of neural tissue (which is organized into gray matter and white matter) and the central canal (cavity of organ part); it is embryologically derived from the caudal part of the neural tube. Together with the brain, the spinal cord constitutes the neuraxis. Examples: There is only one spinal cord.
UWDA

that part of the central nervous system which is lodged in the vertebral canal; it is composed of an inner core of gray matter in which nerve cells predominate, and an outer layer of white matter in which myelinated nerve fibers predominate; it is enclosed in three protective membranes, the meninges.
CSP

Segment of neuraxis that has as its parts gray matter and white matter that surround the central canal. Examples: There is only one spinal cord.
FMA

A column of nerve tissue that runs from the base of the skull down the back. It is surrounded by three protective membranes, and is enclosed within the vertebrae (back bones). The spinal cord and the brain make up the central nervous system, and spinal cord nerves carry most messages between the brain and the rest of the body.
NCI

The elongated, approximately cylindrical part of the central nervous system of vertebrates that lies in the vertebral canal and from which the spinal nerves emerge. (On-line Medical Dictionary)
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mícha – komprese

Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.
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mícha – nemoci

Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.
MSH

pathologic conditions which feature spinal cord damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord.
CSP

Your spinal cord is the part of your nervous system that relays messages to and from your brain. It is housed inside your vertebrae, which are the bone disks that make up your spine. Normally, your vertebrae protect your spinal cord. If they don`t, you can sustain a spinal cord injury. Besides injuries, the spinal cord can develop

Symptoms vary but might include pain, numbness, loss of sensation and muscle weakness. These symptoms can occur around the spinal cord, and also in other areas such as your arms and legs. Treatments vary but often include medicines and surgery.


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mícha – poranění

Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
MSH

damage inflicted on any part of the spinal cord as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
CSP

Spinal cord injuries usually begin with a blow that fractures or dislocates your vertebrae, the bone disks that make up your spine. Most injuries don`t sever your spinal cord. Instead, they cause damage when pieces of vertebrae tear into cord tissue or press down on the nerve parts that carry signals. In a complete spinal cord injury, the cord can`t relay messages below the level of the injury. As a result, you are paralyzed below the level of injury. In an incomplete injury, you have some movement and sensation below the injury.

A spinal cord injury is a medical emergency. Immediate treatment can reduce long-term effects. Later treatment usually includes medicine and rehabilitation therapy.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke


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nádory míchy

Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.
MSH

Cancer that begins in the spinal column (backbone) or spinal cord. The spinal column is made up of linked bones, called vertebrae. The spinal cord is a column of nerve tissue that runs from the base of the skull down the back. It is surrounded by three protective membranes, and is enclosed within the vertebrae. Many different types of cancer may form in the bones, tissues, fluid, or nerves of the spine.
NCI

A primary or metastatic neoplasm affecting the spinal cord.
NCI

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páteř – zakřivení

Deformities of the SPINE characterized by abnormal bending or flexure in the vertebral column. They may be bending forward (KYPHOSIS), backward (LORDOSIS), or sideway (SCOLIOSIS).
MSH

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páteř – nemoci

condition in which there is a deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of the spine.
CSP

Your backbone, or spine, is made up of 26 bone discs called vertebrae. The vertebrae protect your spinal cord and allow you to stand and bend. A number of problems can change the structure of the spine or damage the vertebrae and surrounding tissue. They include

Spinal diseases often cause pain when bone changes put pressure on the spinal cord or nerves. They can also limit movement. Treatments differ by disease, but sometimes they include back braces and surgery.


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páteř – fúze

Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae, often with diskectomy or laminectomy.
CSP

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páteř – poranění

Injuries involving the vertebral column.
MSH

damage inflicted on the vertebral column as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
CSP

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Spinal meninges

Connective tissue membranes that surround and support the spinal cord and cauda equina. They are continuous with cranial meninges, which surround and support the brain.
NCI

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páteř – nádory

A primary or metastatic neoplasm that occurs within the spinal canal including the spinal cord and surrounding paraspinal spaces.
NCI

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