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míšní kořeny

The paired bundles of nerve fibers entering and leaving the spinal cord at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and autonomic preganglionic neurons. There are, however, some exceptions to this afferent/efferent rule.
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míšní nervy

The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
MSH

pairs of nerves (31 in humans) arising from the spinal cord, formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment.
CSP

Neural tree (organ) which is directly continuous with the spinal cord. Examples: Fifth cervical spinal nerve, third lumbar spinal nerve.
FMA

Paired nerves that arise from the spinal cord. In all, there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves located in the human body.
NCI

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páteř – osteofytóza

Outgrowth of immature bony processes or bone spurs (OSTEOPHYTE) from the VERTEBRAE, reflecting the presence of degenerative disease and calcification. It commonly occurs in cervical and lumbar SPONDYLOSIS.
MSH

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spinální punkce

Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.
MSH

A procedure in which a thin needle called a spinal needle is put into the lower part of the spinal column to collect cerebrospinal fluid or to give drugs.
NCI

procedure where a needle is inserted into the spinal column between the lumbar vertebrae; preformed for both diagnostic and therapeutic reasons.
CSP

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spinální stenóza

Narrowing of the spinal canal.
MSH

Your spine, or backbone, protects your spinal cord and allows you to stand and bend. Spinal stenosis causes narrowing in your spine. The narrowing can occur at the center of your spine, in the canals branching off your spine and/or between the vertebrae, the bones of the spine. The narrowing puts pressure on your nerves and spinal cord and can cause pain.

Spinal stenosis occurs mostly in people older than 50. Younger people with a spine injury or a narrow spinal canal are also at risk. Diseases such as arthritis and scoliosis can cause spinal stenosis, too. Symptoms might appear gradually or not at all. They include pain in your neck or back, numbness, weakness or pain in your arms or legs, and foot problems. Treatments include medications, physical therapy, braces and surgery.

NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

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páteř

The spinal or vertebral column.
MSH

column of bones and cartilage that extends from the base of the skull to the pelvis, enclosing and protecting the spinal cord and supporting the trunk and head.
CSP

see:http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/MBrowser.html
AOT

A series of bones, muscles, tendons, and other tissues reaching from the base of the skull to the tailbone. The vertebral column forms the axis of the skeleton and encloses as well as protects the spinal cord and the fluid surrounding the spinal cord. (NCI)
NCI

The bones, muscles, tendons, and other tissues that reach from the base of the skull to the tailbone. The spinal column encloses the spinal cord and the fluid surrounding the spinal cord.
NCI

A series of bones, muscles, tendons, and other tissues reaching from the base of the skull to the tailbone. The vertebral column forms the axis of the skeleton and encloses as well as protects the spinal cord and the fluid surrounding the spinal cord.
NCI

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spinocerebelární degenerace

A heterogenous group of degenerative syndromes marked by progressive cerebellar dysfunction either in isolation or combined with other neurologic manifestations. Sporadic and inherited subtypes occur. Inheritance patterns include autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked.
MSH

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spiperon

A spiro butyrophenone analog similar to HALOPERIDOL and other related compounds. It has been recommended in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
MSH

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ganglion spirale

The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.
MSH

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lamina spiralis ossea

The bony plate which extends outwards from the modiolus into the spiral canal of the cochlea, forming part of the structure that divides the upper SCALA VESTIBULI and the lower SCALA TYMPANI.
MSH

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spiramycin

A macrolide antibiotic produced by Streptomyces ambofaciens. The drug is effective against gram-positive aerobic pathogens, N. gonorrhoeae, and staphylococci. It is used to treat infections caused by bacteria and Toxoplasma gondii.
MSH

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Spirillaceae

A family of gram-negative bacteria in the order Nitrosomonadales. It formerly included the genera CAMPYLOBACTER and SPIRILLUM, then was abandoned, and is now reinstated as a family with a single genus SPIRILLUM.
MSH

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Spirillum

A genus of gram-negative, curved and spiral-shaped bacteria found in stagnant, freshwater environments. These organisms are motile by bipolar tufts of flagella having a long wavelength and about one helical turn. Some species of Spirillum cause a form of RAT-BITE FEVER.
MSH

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spiritualismus

Religious philosophy expressing the fundamental belief that departed spirits may be contacted by the living through a medium.
MSH

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spirosloučeniny

A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one carbon atom in common.
MSH

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Spirochaeta

A genus of flexible, spiral rods found in hydrogen sulfide-containing mud, sewage, and polluted water. None of the species properly referred to in this genus are pathogenic.
MSH

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Spirochaetaceae

A family of spiral bacteria of the order SPIROCHAETALES.
MSH

A taxonomic family of marine spiral shaped bacterium in the phylum Spirochaetes that includes the genera Borrellia, Treponema and Cristispira, among others.
NCI

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Spirochaetales

order of slender, flexuous, helically coiled bacteria, with one or more complete turns in the helix.
CSP

An order of slender, flexuous, helically coiled bacteria, with one or more complete turns in the helix.
MSH

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Spirochaetales – infekce

Infections with bacteria of the order SPIROCHAETALES.
MSH

infections with bacteria of the order Spirochaetales; includes leptospirosis and other spirochaetales infections not available as a narrower term.
CSP

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Spirometra

A genus of tapeworms of the family Diphyllobothriidae, which are parasites of fish-eating cats, dogs, and birds. Infection in man is caused by eating undercooked fish. The larval form is called SPARGANUM.
MSH

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spirometrie

measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.
CSP

Measurement of the breathing capacity of the lung by means of a spirometer.
NCI

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spironolakton

A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)
MSH

potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules; used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis; its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects.
CSP

A synthetic 17-spironolactone corticosteroid with potassium-sparing diuretic, antihypertensive, and antiandrogen activities. Spironolactone competitively inhibits adrenocortical hormone aldosterone activity in the distal renal tubules, myocardium, and vasculature. This agent may inhibit the pathophysiologic effects of aldosterone produced in excess by various types of malignant and benign tumors. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39444&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39444&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C840″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A synthetic 17-spironolactone corticosteroid with potassium-sparing diuretic, antihypertensive, and antiandrogen activities. Spironolactone competitively inhibits adrenocortical hormone aldosterone activity in the distal renal tubules, myocardium, and vasculature. This agent may inhibit the pathophysiologic effects of aldosterone produced in excess by various types of malignant and benign tumors. (NCI04)
NCI

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Spiroplasma

A genus of gram-negative, helical bacteria, in the family SPIROPLASMATACEAE, order Entomoplasmatales, causing disease in PLANTS. It has been isolated from TICKS; INSECTS; and PLANTS.
MSH

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spirostany

Cholestane derivatives containing a fused lactone ring at the 16,17-position and a spiroglycosidic linkage at C-22. Members include sarsaponin, DIOSGENIN and yamogenin.
MSH

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Spiruridae

A superfamily of parasitic nematodes which requires one or two intermediate arthropod hosts before finally being eaten by the final host. Its organisms occur rarely in man.
MSH

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splanchnický oběh

The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.
MSH

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splanchnické nervy

The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
MSH

major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen.
CSP

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slezina

glandlike ductless organ situated in the upper abdominal cavity; it gives rise to new red blood cells in fetus and newborn, disintegrates red blood cells, serves as a blood reservoir, and produces lymphocytes and plasma cells.
CSP

An organ that is part of the hematopoietic and immune systems. It is composed of the white pulp and the red pulp and is surrounded by a capsule. It is located in the left hypochondriac region. Its functions include lymphocyte production, blood cell storage, and blood cell destruction. (NCI)
NCI

An organ that is part of the lymphatic system. The spleen produces lymphocytes, filters the blood, stores blood cells, and destroys old blood cells. It is located on the left side of the abdomen near the stomach.
NCI

An organ that is part of the hematopoietic and immune systems. It is composed of the white pulp and the red pulp and is surrounded by a capsule. It is located in the left hypochondriac region. Its functions include lymphocyte production, blood cell storage, and blood cell destruction.
NCI

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viry vyvolávající fokusy sleziny

Strains of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS that are replication-defective and rapidly transforming. The envelope gene plays an essential role in initiating erythroleukemia (LEUKEMIA, ERYTHROBLASTIC, ACUTE), manifested by splenic foci, SPLENOMEGALY, and POLYCYTHEMIA. Spleen focus-forming viruses are generated by recombination with endogenous retroviral sequences.
MSH

Defective virus found in certain strains of Friend virus, detected by its ability to form foci in spleens of mice and believed to be responsible in those strains for the production of a leukemia associated with polycythaemia rather than anemia. (DictionaryBarn.com)
NCI

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splenektomie

surgical removal of the spleen.
CSP

An operation to remove the spleen.
NCI

Surgical removal of part or all of the spleen.
NCI

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