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fruktany

Polysaccharides composed of D-fructose units.
MSH

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fruktokinasy

A class of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of fructose in the presence of ATP. EC 2.7.1.-.
MSH

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fruktosa

A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
MSH

six carbon sugar that is a component of a number of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, generally the sweetest and most readily absorbed, found naturally in sweet fruits and honey.
CSP

A hexose with a keto group, also called a keto-hexose. Aside from the keto group, each of the 5 remaining carbons has one hydroxyl group, in the S,R, and R configuration counting from the first hydroxyl containing asymmetric carbon next to the ketone in the straight chain (=Fisher) projection. All other carbons are bound to hydrogen exclusively. Occurs mostly as furan and rarely as pyran or straight chain. When fructose forms a ring an additional “”anomeric”” asymmetric carbon is created which is denoted as “”alpha”” or “”beta””. For isomers see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/fructose.
NCI

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fruktosa – nesnášenlivost

An autosomal recessive fructose metabolism disorder due to deficient fructose-1-phosphate aldolase (EC 2.1.2.13) activity, resulting in accumulation of fructose-1-phosphate. The accumulated fructose-1-phosphate inhibits glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, causing severe hypoglycemia following ingestion of fructose. Prolonged fructose ingestion in infants leads ultimately to hepatic failure and death. Patients develop a strong distaste for sweet food, and avoid a chronic course of the disease by remaining on a fructose- and sucrose-free diet.
MSH

autosomal recessive fructose metabolism disorder due to deficient fructose-1-phosphate aldolase (EC 2.1.2.13) activity, resulting in accumulation of fructose-1-phosphate; accumulated fructose-1-phosphate inhibits glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, causing severe hypoglycemia following ingestion of fructose; prolonged fructose ingestion in infants leads ultimately to hepatic failure and death; patients develop a strong distaste for sweet food, and avoid a chronic course of the disease by remaining on a fructose- and sucrose-free diet.
CSP

A genetic disorder characterized by the absence of the enzyme aldolase-B from the liver. This enzyme is essential for the metabolism of fructose. Signs and symptoms from fructose ingestion are evident in infancy and include vomiting, abdominal pain and hypoglycemia. Long term complications include hepatic and renal failure.
NCI

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fruktosa – vrozené poruchy metabolismu

Inherited abnormalities of fructose metabolism, which include three known autosomal recessive types: hepatic fructokinase deficiency (essential fructosuria), hereditary fructose intolerance, and hereditary fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency. Essential fructosuria is a benign asymptomatic metabolic disorder caused by deficiency in fructokinase, leading to decreased conversion of fructose to fructose-1-phosphate and alimentary hyperfructosemia, but with no clinical dysfunction; may produce a false-positive diabetes test.
MSH

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fruktosabisfosfatasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and water to D-fructose 6-phosphate and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.11.
MSH

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fruktosa-1,6-difosfatasa – nedostatek

An autosomal recessive fructose metabolism disorder due to absent or deficient fructose-1,6-diphosphatase activity. Gluconeogenesis is impaired, resulting in accumulation of gluconeogenic precursors (e.g., amino acids, lactate, ketones) and manifested as hypoglycemia, ketosis, and lactic acidosis. Episodes in the newborn infant are often lethal. Later episodes are often brought on by fasting and febrile infections. As patients age through early childhood, tolerance to fasting improves and development becomes normal.
MSH

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fruktosabisfosfátaldolasa

An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the cleavage of fructose 1,6-biphosphate to form dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The enzyme also acts on (3S,4R)-ketose 1-phosphates. The yeast and bacterial enzymes are zinc proteins. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) E.C. 4.1.2.13.
MSH

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fruktosadifosfáty

Diphosphoric acid esters of fructose. The fructose-1,6- diphosphate isomer is most prevalent. It is an important intermediate in the glycolysis process.
MSH

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frukturonátreduktasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidation of mannonate to fructuronate in the presence of NAD. Also reduces D-tagaturonate to D-altronate. EC 1.1.1.57.
MSH

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ovoce

The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
MSH

edible fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
CSP

A structure consisting of the fertilized and mature ovules (“seeds”) and the ovary wall, which may be fleshy (as in the apple) or dry and hard (as in a maple fruit.
NCI

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frustrace

The motivational and/or affective state resulting from being blocked, thwarted, disappointed or defeated.
MSH

motivational and/or affective state resulting from being blocked, thwarted, disappointed or defeated.
CSP

The motivational and/or affective state of annoyance resulting from being blocked, thwarted, disappointed or defeated.
NCI

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folikuly stimulující hormon lidský

A major gonadotropin secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and the LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is common in the three human pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
MSH

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ftorafur

Congener of FLUOROURACIL with comparable antineoplastic action. It has been suggested especially for the treatment of breast neoplasms.
MSH

An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called antimetabolites.
NCI

A congener of the antimetabolite fluorouracil with antineoplastic activity. Tegafur is a prodrug that is gradually converted to fluorouracil in the liver by the cytochrome P-450 enzyme. Subsequently, 5-FU is metabolized to two active metabolites, 5-fluoro-2-deoxyuridine monophosphate (FdUMP) and 5-fluorouridine triphosphate (FUTP) by both tumor cells and normal cells. FdUMP inhibits DNA synthesis and cell division by inhibiting thymidylate synthase and reducing normal thymidine production, while FUTP inhibits RNA and protein synthesis by competing with uridine triphosphate. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39248&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39248&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C513″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A congener of the antimetabolite fluorouracil with antineoplastic activity. Tegafur is a prodrug that is gradually converted to fluorouracil in the liver by the cytochrome P-450 enzyme. Subsequently, 5-FU is metabolized to two active metabolites, 5-fluoro-2-deoxyuridine monophosphate (FdUMP) and 5-fluorouridine triphosphate (FUTP) by both tumor cells and normal cells. FdUMP inhibits DNA synthesis and cell division by inhibiting thymidylate synthase and reducing normal thymidine production, while FUTP inhibits RNA and protein synthesis by competing with uridine triphosphate. (NCI04)
NCI

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Fuchsova endoteliální dystrofie

Disorder caused by loss of endothelium of the central cornea. It is characterized by hyaline endothelial outgrowths on Descemet`s membrane, epithelial blisters, reduced vision, and pain.
MSH

disorder caused by loss of endothelium of the central cornea; it is characterized by hyaline endothelial outgrowths on Descemet`s membrane, epithelial blisters, reduced vision, and pain.
CSP

An autosomal dominant, bilateral, slowly progressive degeneration of corneal endothelial cells with thickening of Descemet`s membrane and accumulation of excrescences. It results in corneal edema and loss of vision.
NCI

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fukosa

methylpentose structurally derived from galactose; the L isomer occurs naturally in various oligosaccharides and polysaccharides and fucosides and in the carbohydrate portion of some mucopolysaccharides and glycoproteins, including the A, B, and O blood group antigens.
CSP

A hexose whose structure can be derived from galactose replacing the -OH group on carbon 6 with a hydrogen.
NCI

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alfa-L-fukosidasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of an alpha L-fucoside to yield an alcohol and L-fucose. Deficiency of this enzyme can cause FUCOSIDOSIS. EC 3.2.1.51.
MSH

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fukosidóza

An autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of ALPHA-L-FUCOSIDASE activity resulting in an accumulation of fucose containing SPHINGOLIPIDS; GLYCOPROTEINS, and mucopolysaccharides (GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS) in lysosomes. The infantile form (type I) features psychomotor deterioration, MUSCLE SPASTICITY, coarse facial features, growth retardation, skeletal abnormalities, visceromegaly, SEIZURES, recurrent infections, and MACROGLOSSIA, with death occurring in the first decade of life. Juvenile fucosidosis (type II) is the more common variant and features a slowly progressive decline in neurologic function and angiokeratoma corporis diffusum. Type II survival may be through the fourth decade of life. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p87; Am J Med Genet 1991 Jan;38(1):111-31)
MSH

lysosomal storage disease caused by defective alpha-L-fucosidase and accumulation of fucose containing glycoconjugates; clinical symptoms include psychomotor deterioration, growth retardation, hepatosplenomegaly, cardiomegaly, and seizures.
CSP

An autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease characterized by a defective alpha-L-fucosidase. It results in accumulation of fucose in the tissues. Signs and symptoms include psychomotor retardation, dysostosis multiplex, and neural disturbances.
NCI

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fukosylgalaktosacetylgalaktosaminyltransferasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetylgalactosamine from UDP N-acetylgalactosamine to various 2-fucosylgalactosides as acceptors. EC 2.4.1.40.
MSH

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fukosyltransferasy

Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC 2.4.1.65; EC 2.4.1.68; EC 2.4.1.69; EC 2.4.1.89.
MSH

Belongs to the family of EC 2.4.1 glycosyltransferases. The enzyme catalyzes the transfer o f fucose molecule from dinucleotide compound to another carbohydrate compound.
NCI

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topné oleje

Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.
MSH

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fumaráthydratasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of fumaric acid to yield L-malic acid. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.2.
MSH

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fumaráty

Compounds based on fumaric acid.
MSH

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vykuřování

The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.
MSH

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funkční reziduální kapacita

The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.
MSH

The volume of air remaining in the lungs after a normal exhalation.
NCI

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fond – zvyšování

Usually organized community efforts to raise money to promote financial programs of institutions. The funds may include individual gifts.
MSH

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Fundulus

Only genus in the family Funduliadae.
MSH

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fundus oculi

The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
MSH

concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope.
CSP

internal part of the eyeball
CHV

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pohřební obyčeje

Those customs and ceremonies pertaining to the dead.
MSH

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fungální proteiny

Proteins found in any species of fungus.
MSH

proteins of fungal origin.
CSP

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