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sterilizace nedobrovolná

Reproductive sterilization without the consent of the patient.
MSH

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sterilizace reprodukční

procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction; surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used, but there are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.
CSP

Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.
MSH

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sterilizace tubální

Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.
MSH

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sternoklavikulární kloub

The synovial juncture between the medial end of the clavicle and the anterior segment of the sternum. (NCI)
NCI

The synovial juncture between the medial end of the clavicle and the anterior segment of the sternum.
NCI

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sternum

The long, flat bone connecting with the cartilages of the first seven ribs and the clavicle. (NCI)
NCI

The long flat bone that forms the center front of the chest wall. The sternum is attached to the collarbone and the first seven ribs.
NCI

The long, flat bone connecting with the cartilages of the first seven ribs and the clavicle.
NCI

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steroid-11-beta-hydroxylasa

A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).
MSH

Encoded by human CYP11B1 Gene (Cytochrome P450 Family), 503-aa 58-kDa (precursor) Cytochrome P450 CYP11B1 is a mitochondrial inner membrane P450 heme-thiolate monooxygenase expressed in adrenal cortex with steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase activity and involved in conversion of progesterone to cortisol. The 18 or 19-hydroxylation of steroids and aromatization of androstendione to estrone have also been ascribed to CYP11B1. CYP11B1 defects cause adrenal hyperplasia type IV (AH-IV). CYP11B1/CYP11B2 gene fusion causes glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism (GRA). P450 enzymes catalyze reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. (NCI)
NCI

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steroid-17-alfa-hydroxylasa

A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.
MSH

Encoded by human CYP17A1 Gene (Cytochrome P450 Family), 508-aa 57-kDa Cytochrome P450 XVIIA1 is a cAMP-regulated endoplasmic reticulum P450 heme-thiolate monooxygenase with 17alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activity and a key enzyme in the steroidogenic pathway that produces progestins, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, androgens, and estrogens. Involved in fetal and adult sexual development, CYP17A1 converts pregnenolone and progesterone to their 17-alpha-hydroxylated products and subsequently to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione. CYP17A1 mutations are associated with steroid-17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency, 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency, pseudohermaphroditism, and adrenal hyperplasia type V (AH-V). P450 enzymes catalyze reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. (NCI)
NCI

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steroid-21-hydroxylasa

An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).
MSH

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steroidhydroxylasy

Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
MSH

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steroidisomerasy

Enzymes that catalyze the transposition of double bond(s) in a steroid molecule. EC 5.3.3.
MSH

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steroid-12-alfa-hydroxylasa

A liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 12-alpha-hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of sterols in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP8B1gene, converts 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one to 7-alpha-12-alpha-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and is required in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS from cholesterol.
MSH

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steroidy

A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley`s Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
MSH

compounds that contain a hydrogenated cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene ring system; they include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols, and certain natural drugs and poisons.
CSP

Any of a group of lipids (fats) that have a certain chemical structure. Steroids occur naturally in plants and animals or they may be made in the laboratory. Examples of steroids include sex hormones, cholesterol, bile acids, and some drugs.
NCI

You may have heard about anabolic steroids, which can have harmful effects. But there`s another type of steroid – sometimes called a corticosteroid – that treats a variety of problems. These steroids are similar to hormones that your adrenal glands produce to fight stress associated with illnesses and injuries. They reduce inflammation and affect the immune system.

You may need to take corticosteroids to treat

  • Arthritis
  • Asthma
  • Autoimmune diseases such as lupus and multiple sclerosis
  • Skin conditions such as eczema and rashes
  • Some kinds of cancer

Steroids are strong medicines, and they can have side effects, including weakened bones and cataracts. Because of this, you usually take them for as short a period as possible.


MEDLINEPLUS

Compounds possessing the skeleton of cyclopenta[a]phenanthrene or a skeleton derived therefrom by one or more bond scissions or ring expansions or contractions. Methyl groups are normally present at C-10 and C-13. An alkyl side chain may also be present at C-17. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons.
NCI

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steroidy bromované

Steroids which are substituted with one or more bromine atoms in any position.
MSH

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steroidy chlorované

Steroids which are substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.
MSH

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steroidy fluorované

Steroids which are substituted with one or more fluorine atoms in any position.
MSH

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steroidy heterocyklické

Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with non-carbon atoms.
MSH

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steroly

Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
MSH

steroids with long (8-10 carbon) aliphatic side chains at position 17 and at least one alcoholic hydroxyl group, usually at position 3; they have lipid-like solubility.
CSP

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Stevensův-Johnsonův syndrom

A variant of bullous erythema multiforme. It ranges from mild skin and mucous membrane lesions to a severe, sometimes fatal systemic disorder. Ocular symptoms include ulcerative conjunctivitis, keratitis, iritis, uveitis, and sometimes blindness. The cause of the disease is unknown.
MSH

A systemic, serious, and life-threatening disorder characterized by lesions in the skin and mucous membranes that may lead to necrosis. The lesions may appear anywhere in the body but they occur more commonly in the palms, soles, dorsum of the hands, and extensor surfaces. The lesions are vesicular or necrotic in the center, surrounded by an erythematous zone and occupy less than 10% of the body surfaces. The appearance of the mucocutaneous lesions is preceded by an upper respiratory tract infection. It is an immune complex hypersensitivity reaction usually caused by drugs (e.g., sulfa, phenytoin, penicillin), viruses (e.g., herpes simplex, influenza, hepatitis), and malignancies (e.g., carcinoma and lymphoma).
NCI

A disorder characterized by less than 10% total body skin area separation of dermis. The syndrome is thought to be a hypersensitivity complex affecting the skin and the mucous membranes.
NCI

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koljušky

Common name for fish found mostly in the family Gasterosteidae. The three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is frequently studied.
MSH

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stigmasterol

Phytosterol with a double bond at the 22nd carbon.
NCI

A steroid derivative characterized by the hydroxyl group in position C-3 of the steroid skeleton, and unsaturated bonds in position 5-6 of the B ring, and position 22-23 in the alkyl substituent. Stigmasterol is found in the fats and oils of soybean, calabar bean and rape seed, as well as several other vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, and unpasteurized milk.
NCI

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stilbamidiny

STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.
MSH

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stilbeny

Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.
MSH

any compound containing the conjugated Ph-CH=CH-Ph group.
CSP

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stimulace chemická

The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
MSH

excitation of an organism or part of an organism to temporary functional activity by application of a chemical.
CSP

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STLV-1

A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2, closely related to the human HTLV-1 virus. The clinical, hematological, and histopathological characteristics of the disease in STLV-infected monkeys are very similar to those of human adult T-cell leukemia. Subgroups include the African green monkey subtype (STLV-I-AGM), for which the nucleotide sequence is 95% homologous with that of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1, and the Asian rhesus macaque subtype (STLV-I-MM), for which the nucleotide sequence is 90% homologous with that of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1.
MSH

A single-stranded reverse-transcribing RNA retrovirus of the genus deltaretrovirus that infects a wide range of non-human primates.
NCI

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stochastické procesy

Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.
MSH

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kompresivní punčochy

Tight coverings for the foot and leg that are worn to aid circulation in the legs, and prevent the formation of EDEMA and DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS. PNEUMATIC COMPRESSION STOCKINGS serve a similar purpose especially for bedridden patients, and following surgery.
MSH

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žaludek

An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
MSH

Organ with organ cavity which is continuous proximally with the esophagus and distally with the small intestine. Examples: There is only one stomach.
UWDA

organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the esophagus and the beginning of the duodenum.
CSP

An organ that is part of the digestive system. It helps in the digestion of food by mixing it with digestive juices and churning it into a thin liquid.
NCI

Organ with organ cavity which is continuous proximally with the esophagus and distally with the small intestine. Examples: There is only one stomach.
FMA

An organ located under the diaphragm, between the liver and the spleen as well as between the esophagus and the small intestine. The stomach is the primary organ of food digestion. (NCI)
NCI

An organ located under the diaphragm, between the liver and the spleen as well as between the esophagus and the small intestine. The stomach is the primary organ of food digestion.
NCI

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žaludeční obsah

The contents of the stomach that may include undigested food mixed with juices secreted by the gastric mucosal glands.
NCI

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žaludek – dilatace

Abnormal distention of the STOMACH due to accumulation of gastric contents that may reach 10 to 15 liters. Gastric dilatation may be the result of GASTRIC OUTLET OBSTRUCTION; ILEUS; GASTROPARESIS; or denervation.
MSH

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nemoci žaludku

Pathological processes involving the STOMACH.
MSH

condition in which there is a deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of the stomach.
CSP

The stomach is an organ between the esophagus and the small intestine. It is where digestion of protein begins. The stomach has three tasks. It stores swallowed food. It mixes the food with stomach acids. Then it sends the mixture on to the small intestine.

You have probably had a problem with your stomach at one time or another. Indigestion and heartburn are common problems. You can relieve some stomach problems with over-the-counter medicines and lifestyle changes, such as avoiding fatty foods or eating more slowly. Other problems like peptic ulcers or GERD require medical attention.

You should see a doctor if you have any of the following:

  • Blood when you have a bowel movement
  • Severe abdominal pain
  • Heartburn not relieved by antacids
  • Unintended weight loss
  • Ongoing vomiting or diarrhea

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

A non-neoplastic or neoplastic disorder that affects the stomach. Representative examples of non-neoplastic disorders include gastritis and gastric ulcer. Representative examples of neoplastic disorders include adenomas, carcinomas, and lymphomas.
NCI

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