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patologické stavy – příznaky a symptomy

see:http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/MBrowser.html
AOT

Abnormal anatomical or physiological conditions and objective or subjective manifestations of disease, not classified as disease or syndrome.
MSH

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synapse

Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron`s presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
MSH

specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell; presynaptic terminals release a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell; the target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell; do not confuse with the immunological synapse, see cross reference for that concept.
CSP

The junction between a nerve fiber of one neuron and another neuron or muscle fiber or glial cell; the site of interneuronal communication. As the nerve fiber approaches the synapse it enlarges into a specialized structure, the presynaptic nerve ending, which contains mitochondria and synaptic vesicles. At the tip of the nerve ending is the presynaptic membrane; facing it, and separated from it by a minute cleft (the synaptic cleft) is a specialized area of membrane on the receiving cell, known as the postsynaptic membrane. In response to the arrival of nerve impulses, the presynaptic nerve ending secretes molecules of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. These diffuse across the cleft and transmit the signal to the postsynaptic membrane. [ISBN:0198506732 “Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology”]
GO

The space between the end of a nerve cell and another cell. Nerve impulses are usually carried to the neighboring cell by chemicals called neurotransmitters, which are released by the nerve cell and are taken up by another cell on the other side of the synapse. The neighboring cell may be another nerve cell, a muscle cell, or a gland cell.
NCI

Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron`s presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate through direct electrical connections which are sometimes called electrical synapses. (MeSH)
NCI

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synaptické membrány

Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.
MSH

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synaptické vezikuly

Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.
MSH

small membrane-bound structures behind a presynaptic membrane, containing neurotransmitters; when depolarization occurs they fuse with the presynaptic membrane and release the neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft.
CSP

A secretory organelle, some 50 nm in diameter, of presynaptic nerve terminals; accumulates in high concentrations of neurotransmitters and is secreted these into the synaptic cleft by fusion with the `active zone` of the presynaptic plasma membrane. [PMID:10099709]
GO

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synaptonemální komplex

The three-part structure of ribbon-like proteinaceous material that serves to align and join the paired homologous CHROMOSOMES. It is formed during the ZYGOTENE STAGE of the first meiotic division. It is a prerequisite for CROSSING OVER.
MSH

A proteinaceous scaffold found between homologous chromosomes during meiosis. [GOC:elh]
GO

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synaptozómy

Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.
MSH

any of the membrane bound sacs that break away from axon terminals after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates; contains synaptic vesicles and mitochondria.
CSP

Any of the discrete particles (nerve-ending particles) formed from the clublike presynaptic nerve endings that resist disruption and are snapped or torn off their attachments when brain tissue is homogenized in media isosmotic to plasma. [ISBN:0198506732 “Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology”]
GO

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ZORABIOA (SINKOPEA),KONORTE GALTZEA

A transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain (i.e., BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Presyncope refers to the sensation of lightheadedness and loss of strength that precedes a syncopal event or accompanies an incomplete syncope. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp367-9)
MSH

fainting due to a sudden fall of blood pressure below the level required to maintain oxygenation of brain tissue.
CSP

Extremely weak; threatened with syncope.
NCI

If you`ve ever fainted, you are not alone – at least one third of people faint sometime in their lives. Fainting is a temporary loss of consciousness. You lose muscle control at the same time, and may fall down. Most people recover quickly and completely.

Fainting usually happens when your blood pressure drops suddenly, causing a decrease in blood flow to your brain. This is more common in older people. Some causes of fainting include

  • Heat or dehydration
  • Emotional distress
  • Standing up too quickly
  • Certain medicines
  • Drop in blood sugar
  • Heart problems

Fainting is usually nothing to worry about, but it can sometimes be a sign of a serious problem. If you faint, it`s important to see your health care provider and find out why it happened.


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by spontaneous loss of consciousness caused by insufficient blood supply to the brain.
NCI

Extremely weak; threatened with syncope.
NCI

A spontaneous loss of consciousness caused by insufficient blood supply to the brain.
NCI

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syndaktylie

A congenital anomaly of the hand or foot, marked by the webbing between adjacent fingers or toes. Syndactylies are classified as complete or incomplete by the degree of joining. Syndactylies can also be simple or complex. Simple syndactyly indicates joining of only skin or soft tissue; complex syndactyly marks joining of bony elements.
MSH

A congenital condition characterized by webbing between the fingers and/or toes, joining the digits together. In rare cases, the joining of the fingers or toes may involve bony fusion between the digits. Common causes include Down Syndrome and hereditary syndactyly.
NCI

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syndrom

A symptom complex of unknown etiology, that is characteristic of a particular abnormality.
MSH

heading term for a set of symptoms, usually three or more, which have a complex etiology and characterize a particular pathological state.
CSP

A set of symptoms or conditions that occur together and suggest the presence of a certain disease or an increased chance of developing the disease.
NCI

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synefrin

Sympathetic alpha-adrenergic agonist with actions like PHENYLEPHRINE. It is used as a vasoconstrictor in circulatory failure, asthma, nasal congestion, and glaucoma.
MSH

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synostóza

A union between adjacent bones or parts of a single bone formed by osseous material, such as ossified connecting cartilage or fibrous tissue. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

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synoviální tekutina

The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.
MSH

Transudate contained in the synovial cavity of joints, and in the cavity of tendon sheaths and bursae.
UWDA

clear, viscous fluid secreted by the synovial membrane; contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.
CSP

Transudate contained in the synovial cavity of joints, and in the cavity of tendon sheaths and bursae.
FMA

A viscid fluid secreted by the synovial membrane, serving as a lubricant. (NCI)
NCI

A viscid fluid secreted by the synovial membrane, serving as a lubricant.
NCI

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synoviální membrána

The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.
MSH

inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint; is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes synovial fluid.
CSP

A layer of connective tissue that lines the cavities of joints, tendon sheaths, and bursae (fluid-filled sacs between tendons and bones). The synovial membrane makes synovial fluid, which has a lubricating function.
NCI

The inner layer of the connective tissue that seals the joint.
NCI

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synoviom

A malignant neoplasm arising from tenosynovial tissue of the joints and in synovial cells of tendons and bursae. The legs are the most common site, but the tumor can occur in the abdominal wall and other trunk muscles. There are two recognized types: the monophasic (characterized by sheaths of monotonous spindle cells) and the biphasic (characterized by slit-like spaces or clefts within the tumor, lined by cuboidal or tall columnar epithelial cells). These sarcomas occur most commonly in the second and fourth decades of life. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1363)
MSH

A malignant tumor that develops in the synovial membrane of the joints.
NCI

A malignant neoplasm characterized by the chromosomal translocation t(X;18)(p11;q11). It can occur at any age, but mainly affects young adults, more commonly males. Although any site can be affected, the vast majority of the cases arise in the deep soft tissues of extremities, especially around the knee. Microscopically, synovial sarcoma is classified as monophasic (with a spindle or epithelial cell component) or biphasic (with both spindle and epithelial cell components). Synovial sarcomas can recur or metastasize to the lungs, bones, and lymph nodes.
NCI

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synovitida

Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

Inflammation of a synovial membrane.
NCI

inflammation of the synovial membrane (joint membrane)
CHV

Inflammation (swelling, pain, and warmth) of a synovial membrane, which is a layer of connective tissue that lines a joint, such as the hip, knee, ankle, or shoulder. Synovitis is caused by some types of arthritis and other diseases.
NCI

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synovitida pigmentová vilonodulární

Outgrowths of synovial membrane composed of villi and fibrous nodules characterized histologically by hemosiderin- and lipid-containing macrophages and multinucleated giant cells. It usually occurs in the knee.
MSH

A locally aggressive, diffusely infiltrating tumor, arising in the tendon sheath. It is composed of synovial-like mononuclear cells, hemosiderin-laden macrophages, foam cells, and inflammatory cells. Multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells are usually present, although in a minority of cases they may be absent or rare. It predominantly affects young adults. Symptoms include joint swelling, pain, and joint effusion.
NCI

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Antigens, Synthetic

small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic.
CSP

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syfilis

A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.
MSH

subacute to chronic infectious venereal disease caused by the spirochete treponema pallidum.
CSP

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by bacteria. It infects the genital area, lips, mouth, or anus of both men and women. You usually get syphilis from sexual contact with someone who has it. It can also pass from mother to baby during pregnancy.

The early stage of syphilis usually causes a single, small, painless sore. Sometimes it causes swelling in nearby lymph nodes. If you do not treat it, syphilis usually causes a non-itchy skin rash, often on your hands and feet. Many people do not notice symptoms for years. Symptoms can go away and come back.

The sores caused by syphilis make it easier to get or give someone HIV during sex. If you are pregnant, syphilis can cause birth defects, or you could lose your baby. In rare cases, syphilis causes serious health problems and even death.

Syphilis is easy to cure with antibiotics if you catch it early. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading syphilis.

NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

A contagious bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. It is a sexually transmitted disorder, although it can also be transmitted from the mother to the fetus in utero. Typically, it is initially manifested with a single sore which heals without treatment. If the infection is left untreated, the initial stage is followed by skin rash and mucous membrane lesions. A late stage follows, which is characterized by damage of the internal organs, including the nervous system.
NCI

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syfilis kardiovaskulární

Cardiovascular manifestations of SYPHILIS, an infection of TREPONEMA PALLIDUM. In the late stage of syphilis, sometimes 20-30 years after the initial infection, damages are often seen in the blood vessels including the AORTA and the AORTIC VALVE. Clinical signs include syphilitic aortitis, aortic insufficiency, or aortic ANEURYSM.
MSH

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syfilis kongenitální

Syphilis acquired in utero and manifested by any of several characteristic tooth (Hutchinson`s teeth) or bone malformations and by active mucocutaneous syphilis at birth or shortly thereafter. Ocular and neurologic changes may also occur.
MSH

A life-threatening bacterial infection of the newborn caused by Treponema pallidum. It is transmitted to the infant from a mother with syphilis through the placenta during pregnancy. Signs and symptoms include irritability, fever, failure to thrive, saddle nose, cutaneous rash, and pneumonia.
NCI

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syfilis kožní

Cutaneous lesions arising from infection with Treponema pallidum. In the primary stage, 18-21 days following infection, one or more chancres appear. If untreated, the subsequent stages of the disease appear as syphilids. These eruptions are superficial, nondestructive, exanthematic, transient, macular roseolas that may later be maculopapular or papular polymorphous or scaly, pustular, pigmented eruptions.(Arnold, Odom, and James, Andrew`s Diseases of the Skin, 8th ed, p409)
MSH

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syfilis latentní

A stage of syphilis characterized by the serologic evidence of infection by Treponema pallidum without evidence of accompanying signs or symptoms related to the disease.
NCI

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Sýrie

A country in the Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Lebanon and Turkey. (NCI)
NCI

A country in the Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Lebanon and Turkey. (CIA World Factbook)
NCI

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injekční stříkačky

Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
MSH

A device for the administration of parenteral drug products that consists of a rigid barrel fitted with septum with a plunger at one end and a seal or needle at the other end. The needle assembly may be part of the device or separate.
NCI

A small hollow tube used for injecting or withdrawing liquids. It may be attached to a needle in order to withdraw fluid from the body or inject drugs into the body.
NCI

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syringomyelie

Longitudinal cavities in the spinal cord, most often in the cervical region, which may extend for multiple spinal levels. The cavities are lined by dense, gliogenous tissue and may be associated with SPINAL CORD NEOPLASMS; spinal cord traumatic injuries; and vascular malformations. Syringomyelia is marked clinically by pain and PARESTHESIA, muscular atrophy of the hands, and analgesia with thermoanesthesia of the hands and arms, but with the tactile sense preserved (sensory dissociation). Lower extremity spasticity and incontinence may also develop. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1269)
MSH

Syringomyelia is a rare disorder that causes a cyst to form in your spinal cord. This cyst, called a syrinx, gets bigger and longer over time, destroying part of the spinal cord. Damage to the spinal cord from the syrinx can cause symptoms such as

  • Pain and weakness in the back, shoulders, arms or legs
  • Headaches
  • Inability to feel hot or cold

Symptoms vary according to the size and location of the syrinx. They often begin in adulthood.

Syringomyelia usually results from a skull abnormality called a Chiari I malformation. A tumor, meningitis or physical trauma can also cause it. Surgery is the main treatment for the disorder. Some people also need to have the syrinx drained.


MEDLINEPLUS

A rare disorder characterized by the formation of a cyst in the spinal cord. It results in weakness, pain, and stiffness in the shoulders, arms, legs, or back. It may be associated with Chiari malformation. Other causes include spinal cord injury, inflammation, or tumor.
NCI

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systémová analýza

The analysis of an activity, procedure, method, technique, or business to determine what must be accomplished and how the necessary operations may best be accomplished.
MSH

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systémová teorie

Principles, models, and laws that apply to complex interrelationships and interdependencies of sets of linked components which form a functioning whole, a system. Any system may be composed of components which are systems in their own right (sub-systems), such as several organs within an individual organism.
MSH

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systola

Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.
MSH

The contraction of the chambers of the heart (especially the ventricles) to drive blood into the aorta and pulmonary artery.
NCI

Period of contraction of the HEART
CHV

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T-2 toxin

A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.
MSH

potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by some Fusarium species.
CSP

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T-lymfocyty

lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity, formed when lymphocytes circulate through the thymus gland and differentiate to thymocytes; when exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
CSP

Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified – cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
MSH

A type of immune cell that can attack foreign cells, cancer cells, and cells infected with a virus. T lymphocytes can also help control immune responses. A T lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell.
NCI

A thymocyte-derived lymphocyte of immunological importance that is long-lived (months to years) and is responsible for cell-mediated immunity. T lymphocyte cells form rosettes with sheep erythrocytes and, in the presence of transforming agents (mitogens), differentiate and divide. These cells have the characteristic T3 surface marker and may be further divided into subsets according to function, such as helper, cytotoxic, etc.
NCI

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