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17-ketosteroidy

Steroids that contain a ketone group at position 17.
MSH

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18-hydroxykortikosteron

11 beta,18,21-Trihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione.
MSH

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18-hydroxydeoxykortikosteron

An analog of desoxycorticosterone which is substituted by a hydroxyl group at the C-18 position.
MSH

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19-jodcholesterol

19-Iodocholest-5-en-3 beta-ol. A cholesterol derivative usually substituted with radioactive iodine in the 19 position. The compound is an adrenal cortex scanning agent used in the assessment of patients suspected of having Cushing`s syndrome, hyperaldosteronism, pheochromocytoma and adrenal remnants following total adrenalectomy.
MSH

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2`,3`-cyklické nukleotidfosfodiesterasy

Nucleoside-2`,3`-cyclic phosphate nucleotidohydrolase. Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the 2`- or 3`- phosphate bonds of 2`,3`-cyclic nucleotides. Also hydrolyzes nucleoside monophosphates. Includes EC 3.1.4.16 and EC 3.1.4.37. EC 3.1.4.-.
MSH

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2`,5`-oligoadenylátsynthetasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP into a series of (2`-5`) linked oligoadenylates and pyrophosphate in the presence of double-stranded RNA. These oligonucleotides activate an endoribonuclease (RNase L) which cleaves single-stranded RNA. Interferons can act as inducers of these reactions. EC 2.7.7.-.
MSH

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2,2`-dipyridyl

A reagent used for the determination of iron.
MSH

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kyselina 2,3-diketogulonová

Metabolite of ASCORBIC ACID and the oxidized form of the lactone DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.
MSH

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kyselina 2,4,5-trichlorfenoxyoctová

An herbicide with strong irritant properties. Use of this compound on rice fields, orchards, sugarcane, rangeland, and other noncrop sites was terminated by the EPA in 1985. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
MSH

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kyselina 2,4-dichlorfenoxyoctová

An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.
MSH

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2,6-dichlorindofenol

A dye used as a reagent in the determination of vitamin C.
MSH

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2-acetolaktátmutasa

An enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of isoleucine and valine. It converts 2-acetolactate into 3-hydroxy-2-oxo-isovalerate. Also acts on 2-hydroxy-2-acetobutyrate to form 2-hydroxy-2-oxo-3-methylvalerate. EC 5.4.99.3.
MSH

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2-acetylaminofluoren

A hepatic carcinogen whose mechanism of activation involves N-hydroxylation to the aryl hydroxamic acid followed by enzymatic sulfonation to sulfoxyfluorenylacetamide. It is used to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines.
MSH

A synthetic, light tan crystalline solid that is insoluble in water and soluble in alcohols, glycols, ether, acetic acid, and fat solvents. It is used as a positive control by toxicologists to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines. When heated to decomposition, 2-acetylaminofluorene emits toxic fumes of nitrogen oxides. The primary routes of potential human exposure to 2-acetylaminofluorene are inhalation and dermal contact. It is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen. (NCI05)
NCI

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2-amino-5-fosfonovalerát

The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.
MSH

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kyselina 2-aminoadipová

A metabolite in the principal biochemical pathway of lysine. It antagonizes neuroexcitatory activity modulated by the glutamate receptor, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE; (NMDA).
MSH

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2-aminopurin

A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).
MSH

purine that is a component of nucleic acid and the nucleotides; the aminopurines include adenine and guanine.
CSP

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2-chloroadenosin

2-Chloroadenosine. A metabolically stable analog of adenosine which acts as an adenosine receptor agonist. The compound has a potent effect on the peripheral and central nervous system.
MSH

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2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzylbromid

A chemical reagent that reacts with and modifies chemically the tryptophan portion of protein molecules. Used for `active site` enzyme studies and other protein studies. Sometimes referred to as Koshland`s reagent.
MSH

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2-hydroxyfenethylamin

Simple amine found in the brain. It may be modulator of sympathetic functions. Its derivatives are adrenergic agonists and antagonists. It is also used in chemical industry.
MSH

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2-isopropylmalátsynthasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the biosynthetic pathway to LEUCINE, forming isopropyl malate from acetyl-CoA and alpha-ketoisovaleric acid. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.12.
MSH

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mesna

A sulfhydryl compound used to prevent urothelial toxicity by inactivating metabolites from ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, such as IFOSFAMIDE or CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE.
MSH

A drug that helps protect the kidneys and bladder from the toxic effects of anticancer drugs such as ifosfamide and cyclophosphamide.
NCI

2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid sodium salt; scavenges glutathione; used as a detoxifying agent for uroprotection (especially in cancer combination chemotherapy), as a prophlylactic for hemorrhagic cystitis, and as an expectorant in treating chronic bronchitis.
CSP

A sulfhydryl compound that is used to reduce the incidence of hemorrhagic cystitis associated with certain chemotherapeutic agents. Mesna is converted to a free thiol compound in the kidney, where it binds to and inactivates acrolein and other urotoxic metabolites of ifosfamide and cyclophosphamide, thereby reducing their toxic effects on the urinary tract during urinary excretion. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39759&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39759&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C192″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A sulfhydryl compound that is used to reduce the incidence of hemorrhagic cystitis associated with certain chemotherapeutic agents. Mesna is converted to a free thiol compound in the kidney, where it binds to and inactivates acrolein and other urotoxic metabolites of ifosfamide and cyclophosphamide, thereby reducing their toxic effects on the urinary tract during urinary excretion. (NCI04)
NCI

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2-naftylamin

A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.
MSH

A synthetic, air-sensitive, colorless crystalline solid that is soluble in hot water, alcohol, ether and many organic solvents. Currently, it is only used in laboratory research. Because the commercial production and use of 2-naphthylamine are banned, the potential for human exposure is low. The general population may be exposed to this chemical through inhalation of emissions from sources where nitrogen-containing organic matter is burned, such as coal furnaces and cigarettes. At greatest risk of occupational exposure to 2-naphthylamine are laboratory technicians and scientists who use it in research. Acute inhalation exposure to high levels of 2-naphthylamine can result in methemoglobinemia, dyspnea, ataxia, hematuria, dysuria and hemorrhagic cystitis. It is known to be a human carcinogen. (NCI05)
NCI

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20-hydroxysteroiddehydrogenasy

A group of enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction-oxidation reaction of 20-hydroxysteroids, such as from a 20-ketosteroid to a 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid (EC 1.1.1.149) or to a 20-beta-hydroxysteroid (EC 1.1.1.53).
MSH

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20-Methylcholanthrene

A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that consists of five fused rings with carcinogenic activity. 20-Methylcholanthrene is often used in experimental cancer studies.
NCI

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24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3

A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhances the calcemic effect of CALCITRIOL.
MSH

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1-alfa-hydroxylasa 25-hydroxyvitaminu D3

A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).
MSH

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25-hydroxyvitamin D 2

9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.
MSH

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3`,5`-cyklická AMP-fosfodiesterasa

Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5`-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3`,5`-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.
MSH

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3`,5`-cyklické GMP-fosfodiesterasy

Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to yield guanosine-5`-phosphate.
MSH

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3,3`-dichlorbenzidin

A material used in the manufacture of azo dyes that is toxic to skin and carcinogenic in several species.
MSH

A synthetic, light-sensitive, gray to purple crystalline solid that is insoluble in cold water but is soluble in ether, benzene, glacial acetic acid and alcohol. It is used primarily in the manufacture of pigments for printing ink, textiles, paper, paint, rubber, and plastics and as a curing agent for isocyanate-containing polymers and solid urethane plastics. When heated to decomposition, 3,3-dichlorobenzidine emits toxic fumes of chlorinated compounds and nitrogen oxides. The primary routes of potential human exposure to 3,3-dichlorobenzidine are inhalation of airborne dust, ingestion of contaminated well water by those living near hazardous waste sites, and dermal contact, primarily during industrial operations. Contact with this compound may cause dermatitis. It is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen. (NCI05)
NCI

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