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kyselina 3,4-dihydroxyfenyloctová

A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.
MSH

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droxidopa

A precursor of noradrenaline that is used in the treatment of parkinsonism. The racemic form (DL-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine) has also been used, and has been investigated in the treatment of orthostatic hypotension. There is a deficit of noradrenaline as well as of dopamine in Parkinson`s disease and it has been proposed that this underlies the sudden transient freezing seen usually in advanced disease. Administration of DL-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine has been claimed to result in an improvement in this phenomenon but controlled studies have failed to demonstrate improvement. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
MSH

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3,4-methylendioxyamfetamin

An amphetamine derivative that inhibits uptake of catecholamine neurotransmitters. It is a hallucinogen. It is less toxic than its methylated derivative but in sufficient doses may still destroy serotonergic neurons and has been used for that purpose experimentally.
MSH

abused, controlled, serotonergic hallucinogen of the “designer drug” class; probably the active metabolite of MDMA (“ecstasy”).
CSP

a kind of hallucinogenic drug
CHV

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kyselina 3-aminopropionová

An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.
MSH

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3-deazauridin

4-Hydroxy-1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-2-pyridinone. Analog of uridine lacking a ring-nitrogen in the 3-position. Functions as an antineoplastic agent.
MSH

A synthetic analogue of nucleoside uridine lacking a ring nitrogen in the 3-position. 3-deazauridine inhibits cytidine synthase, thereby reducing intracellular levels of cytidine and deoxycytidine and disrupting DNA and RNA synthesis. This agent may trigger apoptosis and enhance differentiation of neoplastic cells.. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39208&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39208&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C193″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A synthetic analogue of nucleoside uridine lacking a ring nitrogen in the 3-position. 3-deazauridine inhibits cytidine synthase, thereby reducing intracellular levels of cytidine and deoxycytidine and disrupting DNA and RNA synthesis. This agent may trigger apoptosis and enhance differentiation of neoplastic cells.(NCI04)
NCI

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kyselina 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarová

An antilipemic agent which lowers cholesterol, triglycerides, serum beta-lipoproteins and phospholipids. It acts by interfering with the enzymatic steps involved in the conversion of acetate to hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A as well as inhibiting the activity of HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES which is the rate limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of cholesterol.
MSH

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3-hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenasy

Enzymes that reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a 3-hydroxyacyl CoA to 3-ketoacyl CoA in the presence of NAD. They are key enzymes in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis. EC 1.1.1.35.
MSH

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kyselina 3-hydroxyanthranilová

An oxidation product of tryptophan metabolism. It may be a free radical scavenger and a carcinogen.
MSH

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3-hydroxysteroiddehydrogenasy

Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.
MSH

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kyselina 3-merkaptopropionová

An inhibitor of glutamate decarboxylase. It decreases the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID concentration in the brain, thereby causing convulsions.
MSH

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3-methoxy-4-hydroxyfenylethanol

Metabolite of serotonin and norepinephrine.
MSH

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3-oxoacylsynthasa

An enzyme of long-chain fatty acid synthesis, that adds a two-carbon unit from malonyl-(acyl carrier protein) to another molecule of fatty acyl-(acyl carrier protein), giving a beta-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) with the release of carbon dioxide. EC 2.3.1.41.
MSH

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kyselina 4-aminobenzoová

A member of the VITAMIN B COMPLEX. It used to be common in SUNSCREENING AGENTS until found to also be a sensitizer. The potassium salt is used therapeutically in fibrotic skin disorders.
MSH

An organic acid with UV absorption and antifibrotic properties. When exposed to light, aminobenzoic acid (para-aminobenzoic acid or PABA) absorbs UV light and emits excess energy via a photochemical reaction that may cause damage to DNA. Because DNA defects contribute to skin cancer, aminobenzoic acid is no longer widely used in sunscreen formulations. Aminobenzoic acid may also increase oxygen uptake at the tissue level and may enhance monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity to promote the degradation of serotonin, which in excess, may lead to fibrotic changes.
NCI

A nutrient in the vitamin B complex that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Bacteria that live in the intestines need para-aminobenzoic acid to survive. Para-aminobenzoic acid is found in grains and foods from animals. It is being studied as a radiosensitizer (a substance that makes tumor cells more sensitive to radiation therapy) and in the treatment of certain skin disorders.
NCI

A nutrient in the vitamin B complex that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Bacteria that live in the intestines need aminobenzoic acid to survive. Aminobenzoic acid is found in grains and foods from animals. It is being studied as a radiosensitizer (a substance that makes tumor cells more sensitive to radiation therapy) and in the treatment of certain skin disorders.
NCI

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4-aminopyridin

One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.
MSH

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4-butyrolakton

One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.
MSH

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4-hydroxyaminochinolin-1-oxid

A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a reduction product of 4-NITROQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE. It binds with nucleic acids and inactivates both bacteria and bacteriophage.
MSH

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4-hydroxybenzoát-3-monooxygenasa

A flavoprotein that catalyzes the synthesis of protocatechuic acid from 4-hydroxybenzoate in the presence of molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.13.2.
MSH

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gamma hydroxybutyrate

hydroxy derivative of butyric acid substituted at the gamma, or 4 position; intermediate in the metabolism of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
CSP

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4-hydroxykumariny

Substances found in many plants, containing the 4-hydroxycoumarin radical. They interfere with vitamin K and the blood clotting mechanism, are tightly protein-bound, inhibit mitochondrial and microsomal enzymes, and are used as oral anticoagulants.
MSH

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4-hydroxyfenylpyruvátdioxygenasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate plus oxygen to homogentisic acid and carbon dioxide. EC 1.13.11.27.
MSH

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4-nitrochinolin-1-oxid

A potent mutagen and carcinogen. This compound and its metabolite 4-HYDROXYAMINOQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE bind to nucleic acids. It inactivates bacteria but not bacteriophage.
MSH

A substance that is used in cancer research to cause tumors in laboratory animals. This is done to test new diets, drugs, and procedures for use in cancer prevention and treatment.
NCI

A potent mutagen and carcinogen. This compound and its metabolite 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline-1-oxide bind to nucleic acids. It inactivates bacteria but not bacteriophage. (MeSH)
NCI

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5`-nukleotidasa

A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5`-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 3.1.3.5.
MSH

A class of enzymes present in various organs and in many cells that catalyze the hydrolysis of a 5`-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. Serum 5`-N`Tase is measured as an indicator of liver damage resulting primarily from interference with the secretion of bile. Serum 5`-N`Tase is not as sensitive as some other enzymes (for example, ALP, AST, and ALT) to liver damage, but it is a more liver-specific enzyme. The level of this enzyme parallels alkaline phosphatase (ALP). It is used mostly to differentiate elevations in the above enzymes due to liver damage from damage to skeletal muscle.
NCI

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5,6-dihydroxytryptamin

Tryptamine substituted with two hydroxyl groups in positions 5 and 6. It is a neurotoxic serotonin analog that destroys serotonergic neurons preferentially and is used in neuropharmacologic research.
MSH

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5,7-dihydroxytryptamin

Tryptamine substituted with two hydroxyl groups in positions 5 and 7. It is a neurotoxic serotonin analog that destroys serotonergic neurons preferentially and is used in neuropharmacology as a tool.
MSH

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kyselina eikosapentaenová

An essential, polyunsaturated, 20-carbon omega-3 fatty acid with anti-inflammatory and potential antineoplastic and chemopreventive activities. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) may activate caspase 3, resulting in apoptosis in susceptible tumor cell populations. In addition, this agent may inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), resulting in inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and prostaglandin-mediated inflammatory processes.
NCI

A class of polyunsaturated fatty acids with 20 carbons and 5 double bonds.
NCI

Polyunsaturated fatty acid with 20 carbons and 5 double bonds at the 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th and 15th carbons from the methyl end.
NCI

A polyunsaturated long-chain fatty acid with a 20-carbon backbone and 5 double bonds, originating from the 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th and 15th positions from the methyl end.
NCI

Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.
MSH

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kyselina 5,8,11,14-eikosatetraynová

A 20-carbon unsaturated fatty acid containing 4 alkyne bonds. It inhibits the enzymatic conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins E(2) and F(2a).
MSH

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androstan-3,17-diol

The unspecified form of the steroid, normally a major metabolite of TESTOSTERONE with androgenic activity. It has been implicated as a regulator of gonadotropin secretion.
MSH

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5-hydroxytryptofan

The immediate precursor in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN from tryptophan. It is used as an antiepileptic and antidepressant.
MSH

precursor of serotonin used as antiepileptic and antidepressant.
CSP

An aromatic amino acid with antidepressant activity. In vivo, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is converted into 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT or serotonin) as well as other neurotransmitters. 5-HTP may exert its antidepressant activity via conversion to serotonin or directly by binding to serotonin (5-HT) receptors within the central nervous system (CNS). Endogenous 5-HTP is produced from the essential amino acid L-tryptophan. Exogenous therapeutic 5-HTP is isolated from the seeds of the African plant Griffonia simplicifolia. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=459776&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=459776&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C52181″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

An aromatic amino acid with antidepressant activity. In vivo, oxitriptan (or 5-hydroxytryptophan) is converted into 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT or serotonin) as well as other neurotransmitters. Oxitriptan may exert its antidepressant activity via conversion to serotonin or directly by binding to serotonin (5-HT) receptors within the central nervous system (CNS). Endogenous oxitriptan is produced from the essential amino acid L-tryptophan. The exogenous therapeutic form is isolated from the seeds of the African plant Griffonia simplicifolia.
NCI

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Methylbufotenin

major of two hallucinogenic components of Teonanacatl, the sacred mushroom of Mexico, the other component being psilocin.
CSP

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5-methoxytryptamin

Serotonin derivative proposed as potentiator for hypnotics and sedatives.
MSH

compounds that contain the biogenic monoamine tryptamine and are substituted with one methoxy group and two methyl groups; members of this group include several potent serotonergic hallucinogens found in several unrelated plants, skins of certain toads, and in mammalian brains; they are possibly involved in the etiology of schizophrenia.
CSP

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