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hráčství

An activity distinguished primarily by an element of risk in trying to obtain a desired goal, e.g., playing a game of chance for money.
MSH

activity distinguished primarily by an element of risk in trying to obtain a desired goal.
CSP

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teorie her

Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making “players,” who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other`s decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players` decisions.
MSH

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hry experimentální

Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedure or strategies.
MSH

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gameta – intratubální přenos

A technique that came into use in the mid-1980`s for assisted conception in infertile women with normal fallopian tubes. The protocol consists of hormonal stimulation of the ovaries, followed by laparoscopic follicular aspiration of oocytes, and then the transfer of sperm and oocytes by catheterization into the fallopian tubes.
MSH

a kind of infertility treatment
CHV

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gametogeneze

The process of germ cell development from the primordial GERM CELLS to the mature haploid GAMETES: ova in the female (OOGENESIS) or sperm in the male (SPERMATOGENESIS).
MSH

process of germ cell development from the primordial germ cells to the mature haploid gametes.
CSP

Gametogenesis is the phase of sexual reproduction in which certain cells of a female or male individual (parent) are transformed into specialized reproductive cells (gametes) that will initiate development of a progeny individual (offspring) upon fertilization.
NCI

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gama kamery

electronic instruments that produce photographs or cathode-ray tube images of the gamma-ray emissions from organs containing radionuclide tracers.
CSP

A scintillation (gamma) camera is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a photon radiation detector. This generic type of device may include signal analysis and display equipment, patient and equipment supports, radionuclide anatomical markers, component parts, and accessories.
SPN

The original gamma camera invented by H. O. Anger in 1957 and its subsequent generations. This original camera consisted of one large crystal in which gamma rays were converted to scintillations of light. Then, a limited number of detectors viewed these through a collimator to provide an image. (Dr. Joseph A. Thie)
NCI

An instrument used in medicine to produce images of internal organs after the injection of a radioactive drug into the body, where the drug releases gamma rays. It is used especially in medical diagnostic scanning. (Encarta Dictionary and Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary)
NCI

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gama-globuliny

serum globulins that migrate in the gamma region on electrophoresis; gamma-globulin at one time was used as a synonym for immunoglobulin, since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins; however since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
CSP

a group of blood proteins that contains antibodies
CHV

A type of globulin in plasma that in electrically charged solutions exhibits slowest colloidal mobility after that of the alpha and beta globulins. All immunoglobulins belong to this group of serum protein.
NCI

Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
MSH

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gama paprsky

Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 – 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
MSH

high energy photons emitted during nuclear reactions; major emission of 125-iodine and other radioisotopes useful in biochemistry because of their ease of scintillation counting.
CSP

High-energy, short wavelength, ionizing electromagnetic radiation emitted from the nucleus. Gamma radiation frequently accompanies alpha and beta emissions and always accompanies fission. Gamma rays are very penetrating and are best stopped or shielded by dense materials, such as lead or depleted uranium. Gamma rays are identical to x-rays and are only differentiated by their origin. (from NRC Glossary)
NCI

A type of high-energy radiation that is different from an x-ray.
NCI

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gama-krystaliny

A subclass of crystallins that found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) of VERTEBRATES. Gamma-crystallins are similar in structure to BETA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both form into a Greek key-like structure. They are composed of monomeric subunits.
MSH

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gama-globiny

Members of the beta-globin family. In humans, two non-allelic types of gamma-globin – A gamma and G gamma are encoded in the beta-globin gene cluster on CHROMOSOME 11. Two gamma-globin chains combine with two ZETA-GLOBIN chains to form the embryonic hemoglobin Portland. Fetal HEMOGLOBIN F is formed from two gamma-globin chains combined with two ALPHA-GLOBIN chains.
MSH

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glutamátcysteinligasa

One of the enzymes active in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. It catalyzes the synthesis of gamma-glutamylcysteine from glutamate and cysteine in the presence of ATP with the formation of ADP and orthophosphate. EC 6.3.2.2.
MSH

Glutamate-cysteine ligase, also known as gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase is the first rate limiting enzyme of glutathione synthesis. The enzyme consists of two subunits, a heavy catalytic subunit and a light regulatory subunit. The gene encoding the catalytic subunit encodes a protein of 367 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 72.773 kDa and maps to chromosome 6. The regulatory subunit is derived from a different gene located on chromosome 1p22-p21. Deficiency of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase in human is associated with enzymopathic hemolytic anemia. (LocusLink)
NCI

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gama-glutamylcyklotransferasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of pyroglutamate from a gamma-glutamyl-amino acid, also releasing the free amino acid. The enzyme acts on derivatives of glutamate, 2-aminobutyrate, alanine and glycine. The enzyme has been proposed to have a role in a gamma-glutamyl cycle for amino acid transport into cells in the intestines. EC 2.3.2.4.
MSH

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gama-glutamyltransferasa

An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
MSH

GGT participates in the transfer of amino acids across the cellular membrane and in glutathione metabolism. High concentrations are found in the liver, bile ducts, and the kidney. A test that measures the amount of GGT in the blood is used to detect diseases of the liver, bile ducts, and kidney; and to differentiate liver or bile duct (hepatobiliary) disorders from bone disease. (from http://health.allrefer.com)
NCI

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gama-lipotropin

A lipotropic peptide that is the N-terminal fragment of beta-lipotropin. It is a peptide of 56 amino acids in humans and 58 amino acids in pigs.
MSH

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gama-MSH

An 11-amino acid peptide derived from the N-terminal fragment of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). Gamma-MSH stimulates adrenal steroidogenesis and has an regulatory role in the cardiovascular and the renal systems.
MSH

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gama-tokoferol

A natural tocopherol with less antioxidant activity than ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. As in BETA-TOCOPHEROL, it also has three methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus but at different sites.
MSH

Tocopherol with two methyl groups on the same side (R2 and R3 position) of its chromanol ring.
NCI

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gamma-Tubulin

Ubiquitous or widely expressed 51-kDa conserved Gamma-Tubulins (Tubulin Family) constitute a major essential component of microtubule organizing centers such as spindle poles or centrosomes that are likely involved in minus-end nucleation of microtubule assembly. (NCI)
NCI

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gamma1-MSH

The 11-residue peptide that is fully amidated.
MSH

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gamma2-MSH

The 11-residue peptide that is without amidation.
MSH

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gamma3-MSH

The 11-residue peptide plus the 12-residue sequence leading to the next dibasic cleavage site at the N-terminal of the joining peptide.
MSH

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ganciklovir

An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.
MSH

9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methylguanine; acyclovir analog which inhibits DNA replication of CMV and therefore has efficacy against AIDS-related oculopathy.
CSP

An antiviral agent used to prevent or treat cytomegalovirus infections that may occur when the body`s immune system is suppressed. In gene therapy, ganciclovir is used with an altered herpes simplex virus-1 gene to kill advanced melanoma cells and brain tumor cells.
NCI

family of acyclovir analogs with antiviral efficacy against herpes simplex and cytomegalovirus, a cause of AIDS-related blindness.
CSP

A synthetic guanine derivative with antiviral activity. As the active metabolite of ganciclovir, ganciclovir-5-triphosphate (ganciclovir-TP) appears to inhibit viral DNA synthesis by competitive inhibition of viral DNA polymerases and incorporation into viral DNA, resulting in eventual termination of viral DNA elongation. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40565&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40565&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C517″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A synthetic guanine derivative with antiviral activity. As the active metabolite of ganciclovir, ganciclovir-5-triphosphate (ganciclovir-TP) appears to inhibit viral DNA synthesis by competitive inhibition of viral DNA polymerases and incorporation into viral DNA, resulting in eventual termination of viral DNA elongation.
NCI

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ganglia

Subdivision of neural tree (organ) which primarily consists of cell bodies of neurons located outside the neuraxis (brain and spinal cord); together with a nucleus and its associated nerve, it constitutes a neural tree (organ). Examples: spinal ganglion, trigeminal ganglion, superior cervical ganglion, celiac ganglion, inferior hypogastric (pelvic) ganglion.
UWDA

Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
MSH

any group of sensory or autonomic nerve cell bodies located outside the central nervous system.
CSP

Subdivision of neural tree (organ) which primarily consists of cell bodies of neurons located outside the neuraxis (brain and spinal cord); together with a nucleus and its associated nerve, it constitutes a neural tree (organ). Examples: spinal ganglion, trigeminal ganglion, superior cervical ganglion, celiac ganglion, inferior hypogastric (pelvic) ganglion.
FMA

A cluster of nervous tissue principally composed of neuronal cell bodies external to the central nervous system (CNS). (NCI)
NCI

A cluster of nervous tissue principally composed of neuronal cell bodies external to the central nervous system (CNS).
NCI

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ganglia autonomní

Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.
MSH

clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system; in the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs.
CSP

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ganglia parasympatická

Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.
MSH

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ganglia spinální

Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
MSH

ganglion found on the posterior root of each spinal nerve, composed of the unipolar nerve cell bodies of the sensory neurons of the nerve.
CSP

Ganglion with sensory function within the vertebral column.
NCI

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ganglia sympatická

Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
MSH

any of the aggregations of cell bodies of primarily adrenergic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system.
CSP

Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia. (MeSH)
NCI

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ganglionektomie

Removal of an autonomic or sensory ganglion by any means.
MSH

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ganglioneurom

A benign neoplasm that usually arises from the sympathetic trunk in the mediastinum. Histologic features include spindle cell proliferation (resembling a neurofibroma) and the presence of large ganglion cells. The tumor may present clinically with HORNER SYNDROME or diarrhea due to ectopic production of vasoactive intestinal peptide. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p966)
MSH

A well differentiated, slow growing neuroepithelial neoplasm composed of neoplastic, mature ganglion cells. (Adapted from WHO)
NCI

A benign neuroblastic tumor of the sympathetic nervous system that occurs in childhood. Ganglioneuroma typically arises from the sympathetic trunk in the mediastinum. Histologic features include spindle cell proliferation (resembling a neurofibroma) and the presence of large ganglion cells. Common presenting features include a palpable abdominal mass, hepatomegaly, and a thoracic mass detected on routine chest X-ray.
NCI

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gangliová stimulancia

Agents that mimic neural transmission by stimulation of the nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Drugs that indirectly augment ganglionic transmission by increasing the release or slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine or by non-nicotinic effects on postganglionic neurons are not included here nor are the nonspecific cholinergic agonists.
MSH

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gangliosidy

A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
MSH

subclass of acidic glycosphingolipids containing one or more sialic acid residues.
CSP

A complex molecule that contains both lipids (fats) and carbohydrates (sugars) and is found in the plasma (outer) membrane of many kinds of cells. Several different types of gangliosides have been identified.
NCI

Sialoglycosphingolipids (synonym: gangliosides) are glycosphingolipids carrying one or more sialic residues. Sialic acid is the generic term for N-acetyl- or N-glycoloylneuraminic acid. Gangliosides are named as N-acetyl- (or N-glycoloyl-)neuraminosyl-(X)osylceramide, where (X) stands for the root name of the neutral oligosaccharide to which the sialosyl residue is attached ; found principally in nerve tissue, spleen, and thymus; GM1 accumulates in generalized gangliosidosis; GM2 accumulates in Tay-Sachs disease.
NCI

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