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nervus vestibulocochlearis

The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa`s ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.
MSH

cranial nerve concerned with hearing, balance and head position; the 8th cranial nerve which branches into two parts, a cochlear part integral to hearing and a vestibular part which mediates the sense of balance and head position; also called the vestibulocochlear nerve.
CSP

The eighth cranial nerve composed of the acoustic nerve and the vestibular nerve. The nerve travels from the inner ear, enters the cranial cavity through the internal auditory foramen and joins the brainstem. The auditory nerve conveys impulses from the cochlea of the inner ear to the auditory nuclei of the brainstem. The vestibular nerve carries information from the labyrinths of the inner ear to the vestibular nuclei of the brainstem.
NCI

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nervus vestibulocochlearis – nemoci

Pathological processes of the VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE, including the branches of COCHLEAR NERVE and VESTIBULAR NERVE. Common examples are VESTIBULAR NEURITIS, cochlear neuritis, and ACOUSTIC NEUROMA. Clinical signs are varying degree of HEARING LOSS; VERTIGO; and TINNITUS.
MSH

A disorder characterized by involvement of the acoustic nerve (eighth cranial nerve).
NCI

A non-neoplastic or neoplastic disorder affecting the acoustic nerve.
NCI

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akustická stimulace

Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
MSH

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akustika

The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
MSH

Having to do with sound or hearing.
NCI

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AIDS

An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
MSH

one or more indicator diseases, depending on laboratory evidence of HIV infection (CDC); late phase of HIV infection characterized by marked suppression of immune function resulting in opportunistic infections, neoplasms, and other systemic symptoms (NIAID).
CSP

A disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). People with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are at an increased risk for developing certain cancers and for infections that usually occur only in individuals with a weak immune system.
NCI

A syndrome resulting from the acquired deficiency of cellular immunity caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is characterized by the reduction of the Helper T-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and the lymph nodes. Symptoms include generalized lymphadenopathy, fever, weight loss, and chronic diarrhea. Patients with AIDS are especially susceptible to opportunistic infections (usually pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, tuberculosis, candida infections, and cryptococcosis), and the development of malignant neoplasms (usually non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma and Kaposi`s sarcoma). The human immunodeficiency virus is transmitted through sexual contact, sharing of contaminated needles, or transfusion of contaminated blood.
NCI

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Acremonium

A mitosporic fungal genus with many reported ascomycetous teleomorphs. Cephalosporin antibiotics are derived from this genus.
MSH

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akridinová oranž

A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.
MSH

Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures of synthetic or natural dyes or nondye chemicals in solutions used in staining cells and tissues for diagnostic histopathology, cytopathology, or hematology.
SPN

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akridiny

heterocyclic three ring compound.
CSP

A polycyclic aromatic dye with antineoplastic, antimicrobial and imaging activities. Acridine and its derivatives intercalate within DNA and RNA by forming hydrogen-bonds and stacking between base pairs resulting in DNA crosslinks and strand breaks. In addition, acridine and its derivatives are a potent inhibitor of topoisomerase II enzyme. This results in the inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis, predominantly occurring during S phase of the cell cycle and ultimately leads to cell death.
NCI

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akriflavin

3,6-Diamino-10-methylacridinium chloride mixt. with 3,6-acridinediamine. Fluorescent dye used as a local antiseptic and also as a biological stain. It intercalates into nucleic acids thereby inhibiting bacterial and viral replication.
MSH

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akrodermatitida

Inflammation involving the skin of the extremities, especially the hands and feet. Several forms are known, some idiopathic and some hereditary. The infantile form is called Gianotti-Crosti syndrome.
MSH

An inflammatory skin condition affecting children. It is often associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection, hepatitis B infection or cytomegalovirus infection. It is characterized by the presence of cutaneous rashes and patches on the palms and soles. The trunk is not affected.
NCI

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akrodynie

A condition seen primarily in childhood, most often resulting from chronic exposure to MERCURY COMPOUNDS which may result in encephalopathy and POLYNEUROPATHY. Clinical features include pain, swelling and pinkish discoloration of the fingers and toes, weakness in the extremities, extreme irritability, HYPERESTHESIA, and alterations in level of consciousness. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p603)
MSH

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akrolein

O=CHCH+CH2, a decomposition product of glycerol; potent carcinogen (via cyclic DNA and RNA adducts) and hepatotoxin (via ADH inhibition); urinary metabolite of cyclophosphamide which increases risk of bladder cancer; also found in cigarette smoke and some herbicides.
CSP

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akromegalie

WHAT: Acromegaly:
AIR

A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excessive HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE in adults. It is characterized by bony enlargement of the FACE; lower jaw (PROGNATHISM); hands; FEET; HEAD; and THORAX. The most common etiology is a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80)
MSH

disorder caused by excessive secretion of somatotropin, characterized by bony enlargement of face, hands, feet, head and thorax.
CSP

A syndrome characterized by enlargement of the hands, feet, ears, nose, lips, and tongue, skin thickening and swelling of internal organs. It is caused by overproduction of growth hormone in the pituitary gland, usually by a pituitary adenoma.
NCI

A condition in which the pituitary gland makes too much growth hormone after normal growth of the skeleton is finished. This causes the bones of the hands, feet, head, and face to grow larger than normal. Acromegaly can be caused by a pituitary gland tumor.
NCI

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akromioklavikulární kloub

The gliding joint formed by the outer extremity of the CLAVICLE and the inner margin of the acromion process of the SCAPULA.
MSH

The junction of the upper distal end of the scapula to the distal edge of the collarbone, also known as the acromion and the clavicle. (NCI)
NCI

The junction of the upper distal end of the scapula to the distal edge of the collarbone, also known as the acromion and the clavicle.
NCI

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akromion

The lateral extension of the spine of the SCAPULA and the highest point of the SHOULDER.
MSH

The upper distal process of the scapula. (NCI)
NCI

The upper distal process of the scapula.
NCI

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akronin

A pyrano-acridone alkaloid found in RUTACEAE plants.
MSH

A natural alkaloid with an acridine structure isolated from the bark of the plant Acronychia baueri (Australian scrub ash) with antineoplastic properties. Acronycine appears to alkylate DNA and interfere with DNA replication. (NCI04)
NCI

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akrosin

A trypsin-like enzyme of spermatozoa which is not inhibited by alpha 1 antitrypsin.
MSH

arginine-lysine protease found in spermatozoa which participates in sperm penitration of the zona pellucida of the ovum, which is necessary for fertilization.
CSP

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akrozóm

The cap-like structure covering the anterior portion of SPERM HEAD. Acrosome, derived from LYSOSOMES, is a membrane-bound organelle that contains the required hydrolytic and proteolytic enzymes necessary for sperm penetration of the egg in FERTILIZATION.
MSH

cap like structure covering the anterior portion of sperm head; a membrane bound organelle that contains the required hydrolytic and proteolytic enzymes necessary for sperm penetration of the egg in fertilization.
CSP

A structure in the head of a spermatozoon that contains acid hydrolases, and is concerned with the breakdown of the outer membrane of the ovum during fertilization. It lies just beneath the plasma membrane and is derived from the lysosome. [ISBN:0124325653, ISBN:0198506732 “Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology”]
GO

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akrylamidy

Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.
MSH

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akrylonitril

A highly poisonous compound used widely in the manufacture of plastics, adhesives and synthetic rubber.
MSH

A substance used to make plastics, rubber, and textiles. Exposure to acrylonitrile may increase the risk of developing certain cancers (such as lung, brain, or prostate cancer).
NCI

A colorless, volatile liquid with a pungent, onion-like odor. Acrylonitrile is widely used in industry to produce rubber, resins, plastics, elastomers and synthetic fibers and to manufacture carbon fibers used in aircraft, defense and aerospace industries. Exposure to acrylonitrile irritates the mucous membranes and causes a headache, nausea, dizziness, impaired judgment, difficulty breathing, limb weakness, cyanosis, convulsions and collapse. Acrylonitrile is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen and may be associated with an increased risk of developing lung and prostate cancer. (NCI05)
NCI

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ACTH syndrom ektopický

Symptom complex due to ACTH production by non-pituitary neoplasms.
MSH

A syndrome characterized by abnormal secretion of adrenocorticotrophic hormone in conjunction with neoplastic growth occurring anywhere in the body. The most common associations are tumors of the bronchus (oat cell or carcinoid), thymic tumors (epithelial or carcinoid), and pancreatic endocrine tumor. (DeVita et al. Cancer, p 1364. 4th edition. Lippincott)
NCI

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aktihemyl

An extract from calf blood containing inorganic salts, amino acids, polypeptides and purines, but no proteins nor antigenic substances or blood group characteristics. Its exact composition is unknown. It has been proposed as a radiation-protective agent.
MSH

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Actin-Binding Protein

diverse family of cytoskeletal proteins which bind actin, thereby stabilizing or destabilizing microfilaments, anchoring them to other cell structures, or subserving intracellular translocation and motility.
CSP

Protein that binds to actin filaments and modulates their properties and functions. Examples: actin-bundling protein, actin severing protein.
UWDA

A diverse group of proteins that bind to actin. These proteins direct a complex network of protein filaments that provide stability to the cellular infrastructure by supporting the dynamic motility of microfilaments, thereby enabling intracellular translocation and organelle transport.
NCI

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předvádění se

Expressing unconscious emotional conflicts or feelings, often of hostility or love, through overt behavior.
MSH

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aktinin

A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.
MSH

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aktinium

Actinium. A trivalent radioactive element and the prototypical member of the actinide family. It has the atomic symbol Ac, atomic number 89, and atomic weight 227.0278. Its principal isotope is 227 and decays primarily by beta-emission.
MSH

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actinobacillosis

A disease characterized by suppurative and granulomatous lesions in the respiratory tract, upper alimentary tract, skin, kidneys, joints, and other tissues. Actinobacillus lignieresii infects cattle and sheep while A. equuli infects horses and pigs.
MSH

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Actinobacillus

genus of Pasteurellaceae described as gram negative, nonsporeforming, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes; most members are found both as pathogens and commensal organisms in the respiratory, alimentary, and genital tracts of animals.
CSP

A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE described as gram-negative, nonsporeforming, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Most members are found both as pathogens and commensal organisms in the respiratory, alimentary, and genital tracts of animals.
MSH

A genus of anaerobic, Gram negative, rod shaped bacterium assigned to the phylum Proteobacteria and the family Pasteurellaceae.
NCI

Any bacteria that is not assigned to the species level but can be assigned to the Actinobacillus genus level.
NCI

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Actinobacillus – infekce

Infections with bacteria of the genus ACTINOBACILLUS.
MSH

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Actinomyces

genus of the family Actinomycetaceae of the order Actinomycetales; a genus of gram positive, rod shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile; filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
CSP

A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
MSH

A genus of bacteria within the phylum Actinobacteria consisting of gram-positive bacilli that can be anaerobic or facultatively anaerobic.
NCI

Any bacteria that is not assigned to the species level but can be assigned to the Actinomyces genus level.
NCI

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