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N-acylneuraminátcytidylyltransferasa

An enzyme that forms CMP-acylneuraminic acids, which donate the N-acylneuraminic acid residues to the terminal sugar residue of a ganglioside or glycoprotein. EC 2.7.7.43.
MSH

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acyltransferasy

Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
MSH

transfers acyl groups, forming either esters or amides.
CSP

Class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups, most commonly a carboxylic acyl group forming either esters or amides.
NCI

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adamantan

A tricyclo bridged hydrocarbon.
MSH

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Adamsův-Stokesův syndrom

A condition of fainting spells caused by heart block, often an atrioventricular block, that leads to BRADYCARDIA and drop in CARDIAC OUTPUT. When the cardiac output becomes too low, the patient faints (SYNCOPE). In some cases, the syncope attacks are transient and in others cases repetitive and persistent.
MSH

An episode of sudden and transient loss of consciousness sometimes associated with seizures. It is caused by a sudden decrease of the cardiac output that results from a sudden cardiac dysrhythmia. Typically patients develop an initial pallor, followed by facial flush during recovery.
NCI

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adaptace biologická

Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
MSH

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adaptace oční

The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
MSH

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adaptace fyziologická

The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
MSH

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Addisonova nemoc

disease characterized by hypotension, weight loss, anorexia, weakness, and sometimes a bronze-like melanotic hyperpigmentation of the skin; due to tuberculosis or autoimmune induced disease (hypofunction) of the adrenal glands that results in deficiency of aldosterone and cortisol.
CSP

Your adrenal glands are just above your kidneys. The outside layer of these glands makes hormones that help your body respond to stress and regulate your blood pressure and water and salt balance. Addison`s disease occurs if the adrenal glands don`t make enough of these hormones.

A problem with your immune system usually causes Addison`s disease. The immune system mistakenly attacks your own tissues, damaging your adrenal glands.

Symptoms include

  • Weight loss
  • Muscle weakness
  • Fatigue that gets worse over time
  • Low blood pressure
  • Patchy or dark skin

Lab tests can confirm that you have Addison`s disease. If you don`t treat it, it can be fatal. You will need to take hormone pills for the rest of your life. If you have Addison`s disease, you should carry an emergency ID. It should say that you have the disease, list your medicines and say how much you need in an emergency.


MEDLINEPLUS

An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.
MSH

A hormonal disorder that occurs when the adrenal glands fail to release adequate amounts of glucocorticoids (cortisol), mineralocorticoids (aldosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone), and androgens (dehydroepiandrosterone) to meet physiologic needs, despite release of ACTH from the pituitary.
NCI

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adenin

A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
MSH

6-aminopurine; one of the 5 major bases (with guanine, thymine, cytosine, and uracil) found in nucleic acids.
CSP

A chemical compound that is used to make one of the building blocks of DNA and RNA. It is also a part of many substances in the body that give energy to cells. Adenine is a type of purine.
NCI

A purine base and a fundamental unit of adenine nucleotides. (MeSH)
NCI

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mitochondriální ADP/ATP-translokasy

A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.
MSH

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adeninnukleotidy

condensation product of adenosine and phosphoric acid; a nucleotide found among the hydrolysis products of all nucleic acids.
CSP

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adeninfosforibosyltransferasa

An enzyme catalyzing the formation of AMP from adenine and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate. It can act as a salvage enzyme for recycling of adenine into nucleic acids. EC 2.4.2.7.
MSH

Human adenine phosphoribosyltransferase protein (179 aa, 19 kDa) is encoded by the human adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) gene. The cytoplasmic protein is primarily involved in an AMP purine salvage reaction that recycles adenine into nucleic acids by the formation of AMP from adenine and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate.
NCI

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viry adenoasociované

A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
MSH

replication is dependent on a helper adenovirus; multiplies in cells which support adenovirus replication in many species of host.
CSP

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adenokarcinom

A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
MSH

carcinoma derived from glandular tissue or in which tumor cells form recognizable glandular structures.
CSP

Cancer that begins in cells that line certain internal organs and that have gland-like (secretory) properties.
NCI

A common cancer characterized by the presence of malignant glandular cells. Morphologically, adenocarcinomas are classified according to the growth pattern (e.g., papillary, alveolar) or according to the secreting product (e.g., mucinous, serous). Representative examples of adenocarcinoma are ductal and lobular breast carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma (hepatoma), colon adenocarcinoma, and prostate adenocarcinoma.
NCI

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adenokarcinom papilární

An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)
MSH

A morphologic variant of adenocarcinoma. It is characterized by the presence of a papillary growth pattern. Representative examples include thyroid gland papillary carcinoma, invasive papillary breast carcinoma, and ovarian serous surface papillary adenocarcinoma.
NCI

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adenofibrom

A benign neoplasm composed of glandular and fibrous tissues, with a relatively large proportion of glands. (Stedman, 25th ed)
MSH

A benign neoplasm characterized by the presence of connective tissue stroma and epithelial structures. It occurs in the ovary, fallopian tube, uterine corpus, and cervix. Cases of adenofibroma of the ovary with low grade malignant potential have also been reported.
NCI

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adenektomie

Excision of the adenoids. (Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

excision of the diffuse lymphoid tissue and follicles in the roof and posterior wall of the nasopharynx or adenoids; these tissues are also called adenoid tonsils or pharyngeal tonsil.
CSP

Surgical removal of the pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids).
NCI

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adenoidy

A collection of lymphoid nodules on the posterior wall and roof of the NASOPHARYNX.
MSH

A fold of lymphatic tissue covered by ciliated epithelium at the very back of the nose, in the roof of the nasopharynx. (NCI)
NCI

A fold of lymphatic tissue covered by ciliated epithelium at the very back of the nose, in the roof of the nasopharynx.
NCI

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adenolymfom

A benign tumor characterized histologically by tall columnar epithelium within a lymphoid tissue stroma. It is usually found in the salivary glands, especially the parotid.
MSH

An adenoma characterized by an oncocytic, often papillary, epithelial component, dense lymphoid stroma, and cystic spaces. It occurs primarily in the parotid gland, and is the second most common benign parotid salivary gland tumor. A strong association with smoking has been reported. About 10% develop simultaneous or metachronous contralateral tumors. It typically presents as a painless swelling in the lower portion of the parotid gland.
NCI

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adenom

A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
MSH

benign epithelial tumor in which the cells form recognizable glandular structures or in which the cells are clearly derived from glandular epithelium.
CSP

A tumor that is not cancer. It starts in gland-like cells of the epithelial tissue (thin layer of tissue that covers organs, glands, and other structures within the body).
NCI

A neoplasm arising from the epithelium. It may be encapsulated or non-encapsulated but non-invasive. The neoplastic epithelial cells may or may not display cellular atypia or dysplasia. In the gastrointestinal tract, when dysplasia becomes severe it is sometimes called carcinoma in situ. Representative examples are pituitary gland adenoma, follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland, and adenomas (or adenomatous polyps) of the gastrointestinal tract.
NCI

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bazofilní adenom

A small tumor of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland whose cells stain with basic dyes. It may give rise to excessive secretion of ACTH, resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

An epithelial neoplasm of the anterior pituitary gland in which the neoplastic cells stain positive with basic dyes.
NCI

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adenom chromofobní

A benign tumor of the anterior pituitary in which the cells do not stain with acidic or basic dyes.
MSH

An epithelial neoplasm of the anterior pituitary gland in which the neoplastic cells do not stain with acidic or basic dyes.
NCI

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adenom eozinofilní

A benign tumor, usually found in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, whose cells stain with acid dyes. Such pituitary tumors may give rise to excessive secretion of growth hormone, resulting in gigantism or acromegaly. A specific type of acidophil adenoma may give rise to nonpuerperal galactorrhea. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

An epithelial neoplasm of the anterior pituitary gland in which the neoplastic cells stain positive with acidic dyes.
NCI

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adenosarkom

A malignant neoplasm arising simultaneously or consecutively in mesodermal tissue and glandular epithelium of the same part. (Stedman, 25th ed)
MSH

A tumor that is a mixture of an adenoma (a tumor that starts in the gland-like cells of epithelial tissue) and a sarcoma (a tumor that starts in bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue). An example of an adenosarcoma is Wilms tumor.
NCI

A low grade malignant neoplasm characterized by the presence of a benign epithelial component (tubular and cleft-like glands) and a low grade sarcomatous component that contains varying amounts of fibrous and smooth muscle tissues. In a minority of cases, the sarcomatous component contains heterologous elements including striated muscle, cartilage, and fat. It occurs in the uterine corpus, ovary, fallopian tube, cervix, and vagina. It may recur and in a minority of cases may metastasize to distant anatomic sites.
NCI

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adenosin

A nucleoside that is composed of adenine and d-ribose. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
MSH

nucleoside that is composed of adenine and d-ribose; adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA; adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
CSP

a kind of nucleic acid
CHV

A nucleoside that is composed of adenine and d-ribose. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter. (MeSH)
NCI

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receptor adenosinový A1

Adenosine receptor A1 (326 aa, 37 kD) is a cell fate protein that is encoded by the human ADORA1 gene and has roles in signal transduction, apoptosis, phagocytosis, inflammatory response and nervous system development.
NCI

A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of tissues including the BRAIN and DORSAL HORN NEURONS. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.
MSH

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receptory adenosinové A2

A subclass of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS that are generally considered to be coupled to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN which causes up regulation of CYCLIC AMP.
MSH

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adenosinmonofosfát cyklický

An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3`- and 5`-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
MSH

adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3` and 5` positions of the sugar moiety; it is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones.
CSP

An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3`- and 5`-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH. (MeSH)
NCI

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adenosindeaminasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.
MSH

Adenosine deaminase catalyzes the hydrolysis of adenosine to inosine. ADA deficiency causes one form of severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID), in which there is dysfunction of both B and T lymphocytes with impaired cellular immunity and decreased production of immunoglobulins. (LocusLink)
NCI

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adenosindifosfát

Adenosine 5`-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5`-position.
MSH

adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5`-position that is converted to ATP for energy for storage.
CSP

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