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nadledvinová kůra

The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.
MSH

The outer part of the adrenal gland (a small organ on top of each kidney). The adrenal cortex makes androgen and corticosteroid hormones.
NCI

The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It secretes mineralocorticoids, androgens, and glucocorticoids. (MeSH)
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nadledvinová kůra – nemoci

Pathological processes of the ADRENAL CORTEX.
MSH

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hormony kůry nadledvin

any of the 21-carbon steroids elaborated by the adrenal cortex (excluding the sex hormones of adrenal origin) in response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) released by the pituitary gland or to angiotensin II; called also adrenocorticoid, corticoid, adrenal cortical or adrenocortical steroid, and adrenocortical or cortical hormone.
CSP

Any steroid hormone made in the adrenal cortex (the outer part of the adrenal gland). They are also made in the laboratory. Corticosteroids have many different effects in the body, and are used to treat many different conditions. They may be used as hormone replacement, to suppress the immune system, and to treat some side effects of cancer and its treatment. Corticosteroids are also used to treat certain lymphomas and lymphoid leukemias.
NCI

Hormones synthesized in the cortex of the adrenal gland and consist of two subclasses, glucocorticoids (carbohydrate regulation) and mineralocorticoids (electrolyte regulation).
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nadledvinová kůra – nádory

Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.
MSH

A benign or malignant (primary or metastatic) neoplasm affecting the adrenal cortex. (NCI05)
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nadledviny – nemoci

Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
MSH

pathologic condition or abnormal functioning of either or both of the paired glands situated in the retroperitoneal tissues at the superior pole of the kidneys or adrenal glands.
CSP

Your adrenal, or suprarenal, glands are located on the top of each kidney. These glands produce hormones that you can`t live without, including sex hormones and cortisol, which helps you respond to stress and has many other functions.

Adrenal disorders can cause your adrenal glands to make too much or not enough hormones. With Cushing`s syndrome, there`s too much cortisol, while with Addison`s disease, there is too little. Some people are born unable to make enough cortisol. Tumors can also cause disorders in your adrenal glands. Bleeding and infection can cause an adrenal gland problem that can be fatal without quick treatment.

Treatment depends on which problem you have. Surgery or medicines can treat many adrenal gland disorders.


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adrenokortikální hyperfunkce

abnormally increased secretion of adrenal hormones.
CSP

complex of symptoms and signs due to excessive production or administration of hydrocortisone or its semi-synthetic analogs.
CSP

Excess production of ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE. Hyperadrenal syndromes include CUSHING SYNDROME; HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and VIRILISM.
MSH

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insuficience nadledvin

abnormally diminished activity of the adrenal gland.
CSP

A disorder that occurs when the adrenal cortex does not produce enough of the hormone cortisol and in some cases, the hormone aldosterone. It may be due to a disorder of the adrenal cortex as in Addison`s disease or primary adrenal insufficiency.
NCI

Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.
MSH

An endocrine or hormonal disorder that occurs when the adrenal cortex does not produce enough of the hormone cortisol and in some cases, the hormone aldosterone. It may be due to a disorder of the adrenal cortex (Addison`s disease or primary adrenal insufficiency) or to inadequate secretion of ACTH by the pituitary gland (secondary adrenal insufficiency).
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nadledviny – nádory

Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
MSH

new abnormal adrenal gland tissue that grows by excessive cellular division and proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease.
CSP

A benign or malignant (primary or metastatic) neoplasm affecting the adrenal glands.
NCI

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nadledviny

A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
MSH

paired glands situated in the retroperitoneal tissues at the superior pole of each kidney.
CSP

Suprarenal gland. A flattened, roughly triangular body resting upon the upper end of each kidney; it is one of the ductless glands furnishing internal secretions (epinephrine and norepinephrine from the medulla and steroid hormones from the cortex). (NCI)
NCI

A small gland that makes steroid hormones, adrenaline, and noradrenaline. These hormones help control heart rate, blood pressure, and other important body functions. There are two adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney.
NCI

A flattened, roughly triangular body resting upon the upper end of each kidney; it is one of the ductless glands furnishing internal secretions (epinephrine and norepinephrine from the medulla and steroid hormones from the cortex).
NCI

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nadledviny – hyperplazie kongenitální

A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.
MSH

group of syndromes caused by inherited defects in cortisol and/or aldosterone biosynthesis; ACTH elevation is caused by low levels of cortisol, whose production is impaired by absence or deficiency of one of the five enzymes necessary for its synthesis from cholesterol.
CSP

A genetic disorder characterized by defects in the synthesis of cortisol and/or aldosterone, resulting in hyperplasia of the adrenal cortical cells.
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nadledviny – dřeň

The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.
MSH

inner part of the adrenal gland; it synthesizes, stores and releases catecholamines.
CSP

The inner part of the adrenal gland (a small organ on top of each kidney). The adrenal medulla makes chemicals such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) which are involved in sending nerve signals.
NCI

The inner part of the adrenal gland; it synthesizes, stores and releases catecholamines. (MeSH)
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nadledviny – zbytkový nádor

Neoplasm derived from displaced cells (rest cells) of the primordial ADRENAL GLANDS, generally in patients with CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA. Adrenal rest tumors have been identified in TESTES; LIVER; and other tissues. They are dependent on ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN for growth and adrenal steroid secretion.
MSH

A benign, testicular or ovarian tumor, derived from adrenal embryonic rest cells. It is composed of hyperplastic adrenal cortical tissue, and it is associated with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
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adrenalektomie

Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

excision of one (unilateral) or both (bilateral) of the adrenal glands; called also suprarenalectomy.
CSP

Surgery to remove one or both adrenal glands (a small organ on top of each kidney).
NCI

Surgical removal of part or all of the adrenal gland.
NCI

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epinephrine hydrochloride

The hydrochloride salt of the naturally occurring sympathomimetic amine with vasoconstricting, intraocular pressure-reducing, and bronchodilating activities. By stimulating vascular alpha-adrenergic receptors, epinephrine causes vasoconstriction, thereby increasing vascular resistance and blood pressure. When administered in the conjunctiva, this agent binds to alpha-adrenergic receptors in the iris sphincter muscle, resulting in vasoconstriction, a decrease in the production of aqueous humor, and a lowering of intraocular pressure. Through its beta1 receptor-stimulating actions, epinephrine increases the force and rate of myocardial contraction and relaxes bronchial smooth muscle, resulting in bronchodilation.
NCI

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adrenergní látky

Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.
MSH

drugs that selectively bind to and activate adrenergic receptors or mimic the actions of adrenergic transmitters; for adrenergic antagonists, see ANTIADRENERGIC AGENT.
CSP

Refer to a class of agents that acts upon adrenergic receptors associated with activities of Sympathetic Nerve System. The adrenergic receptors (adrenoceptors) belongs to the family of seven membrane spanning domain receptors that require G protein signaling pathway. (NCI04)
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alfa-1-adrenergní receptory

A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.
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alfa-2-adrenergní receptory

A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
MSH

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receptory adrenergní alfa – agonisté

Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
MSH

Natural or synthetic Alpha-adrenergic Agonists selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors of the sympathetic nervous system, mimicking the actions of natural sympathomimetic neurotransmitters (norepinephrine and related substances). Alpha-adrenergic Agonists can initiate physiological responses such as vasoconstriction, pupil dilation, and contraction of pilomotor muscles. (NCI04)
NCI

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receptory adrenergní alfa – blokátory

drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists; adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
CSP

Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
MSH

Natural or synthetic Alpha-adrenergic Blocking Agents selectively bind to adrenergic receptors, or compete with natural adrenergic mediators, and inactivate alpha adrenergic receptors of the sympathetic nervous system. These agents block the action of natural sympathomimetic neurotransmitters (norepinephrine and related substances), and can initiate physiological responses such as vasodilation, bradycardia, and pupil contraction.
NCI

A substance that relaxes muscle tissue in blood vessels and in the prostate gland, which improves the flow of urine and blood. Alpha-blockers are used to treat the symptoms of many conditions, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), high blood pressure, and some blood circulation problems.
NCI

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beta-1-adrenergní receptory

A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
MSH

Beta 1 adrenergic receptor protein (477 aa, 51 kD) is a cell communication process protein that is encoded by the human ADRB1 gene and has a role in signal transduction.
NCI

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beta-2-adrenergní receptory

A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.
MSH

Beta 2 adrenergic receptor (413 aa, 47 kD) is a cell communication protein that is encoded by the human ADRB2 gene and has roles in endosome to lysosome transport and signal transduction.
NCI

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receptory adrenergní beta – agonisté

Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
MSH

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beta-blokátory

Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
MSH

a type of drug used for hypertension, migraine, cardiac infarction, etc
CHV

Natural or synthetic beta adrenergic antagonists selectively blocking or diminishing physiologic beta-adrenergic agonist actions on the sympathetic system. This group of antagonists are generally used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
NCI

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adrenergní vlákna

Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.
MSH

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receptory adrenergní – agonisté

Drugs that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors.
MSH

Any agent that binds to and activates any of the adrenergic receptors.
NCI

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adrenochrom

Pigment obtained by the oxidation of epinephrine.
MSH

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adrenokortikotropní hormon

pituitary hormone that stimulates the secretion of adrenal cortical steroids and induces growth of the adrenal cortex.
CSP

An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
MSH

A hormone made in the pituitary gland. ACTH acts on the outer part of the adrenal gland to control its release of corticosteroid hormones. More ACTH is made during times of stress.
NCI

A hormone secreted by the anterior portion of the pituitary gland and regulates hormone, primarily cortisol, secreted by the adrenal gland.
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adrenodoxin

An iron-sulfur protein which serves as an electron carrier in enzymatic steroid hydroxylation reactions in adrenal cortex mitochondria. The electron transport system which catalyzes this reaction consists of adrenodoxin reductase, NADP, adrenodoxin, and cytochrome P-450.
MSH

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adsorpce

The condensation of gases, liquids, or dissolved substances on the surfaces of solids. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses as well as of tissues treated with exogenous drugs and chemicals.
MSH

adhesion in an extremely thin layer of molecules (as of gases, solutes, or liquids) to the surfaces of solid bodies or liquids with which they are in contact.
CSP

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dospělí

A person having attained full growth or maturity. Adults are of 19 through 44 years of age. For a person between 19 and 24 years of age, YOUNG ADULT is available.
MSH

A human who has reached reproductive age.
NCI

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