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alylestrenol

A synthetic steroid with progestational activity.
MSH

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alylglycin

An inhibitor of glutamate decarboxylase and an antagonist of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. It is used to induce convulsions in experimental animals.
MSH

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alylisopropylacetamid

An allylic compound that acts as a suicide inactivator of CYTOCHROME P450 by covalently binding to its heme moiety or surrounding protein.
MSH

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almitrin

A respiratory stimulant that enhances respiration by acting as an agonist of peripheral chemoreceptors located on the carotid bodies. The drug increases arterial oxygen tension while decreasing arterial carbon dioxide tension in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It may also prove useful in the treatment of nocturnal oxygen desaturation without impairing the quality of sleep.
MSH

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Aloe

A plant genus of the family Aloeaceae, order Liliales (or Asphodelaceae, Asparagales in APG system) which is used medicinally. It contains anthraquinone glycosides such as aloin-emodin or aloe-emodin (EMODIN).
MSH

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alopecie

Absence of hair from areas where it is normally present.
MSH

baldness; absence of hair from skin areas where it is normally present.
CSP

Hair loss usually from the scalp. It may result in bald spots or spread to the entire scalp or the entire epidermis. It may be androgenetic or caused by chemotherapeutic agents, compulsive hair pulling, autoimmune disorders or congenital conditions.
NCI

The lack or loss of hair from areas of the body where hair is usually found. Alopecia can be a side effect of some cancer treatments.
NCI

A disorder characterized by a decrease in density of hair compared to normal for a given individual at a given age and body location.
NCI

Did you know that you lose up to 100 hairs from your scalp every day? That`s normal, and in most people, those hairs grow back. But many men — and some women — lose hair as they grow older. You can also lose your hair if you have certain diseases, such as thyroid problems, diabetes or lupus. If you take certain medicines or have chemotherapy for cancer, you may also lose your hair. Other causes are stress, a low protein diet, a family history or poor nutrition.

Treatment for hair loss depends on the cause. In some cases, treating the underlying cause will correct the problem. Other treatments include medicines and hair restoration.


MEDLINEPLUS

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alopecia areata

Loss of scalp and body hair involving microscopically inflammatory patchy areas.
MSH

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mucinóza folikulární

A disease of the pilosebaceous unit, presenting clinically as grouped follicular papules or plaques with associated hair loss. It is caused by mucinous infiltration of tissues, and usually involving the scalp, face, and neck. It may be primary (idiopathic) or secondary to mycosis fungoides or reticulosis.
MSH

A rare dermatologic disorder characterized by the accumulation of mucinous material in the hair follicles. In some cases it is associated with lymphoproliferative disorders, most often mycosis fungoides and Hodgkin lymphoma.
NCI

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Alouatta

A genus of the subfamily ALOUATTINAE, family ATELIDAE, inhabiting the forests of Central and South America. Howlers travel in groups and define their territories by howling accompanied by vigorously shaking and breaking branches.
MSH

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alfa-1-antichymotrypsin

Glycoprotein found in alpha(1)-globulin region in human serum. It inhibits chymotrypsin-like proteinases in vivo and has cytotoxic killer-cell activity in vitro. The protein also has a role as an acute-phase protein and is active in the control of immunologic and inflammatory processes, and as a tumor marker. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
MSH

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alfa-1-antitrypsin

Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.
MSH

inflammation-inducible serine protease inhibitor synthesized primarily in liver, then secreted into blood where it accounts for the bulk of blood protease inhibitor activity; is an important regulator of neutrophil elastase.
CSP

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interferon alfa

One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.
MSH

major interferon produced by virus-exposed leukocytes; has antiviral activity and activates NK cells; used in the treatment of hairy cell leukemia and other neoplasms.
CSP

a protein produced by the body in response to an infection
CHV

A class of naturally-isolated or recombinant therapeutic peptides used as antiviral and anti-tumor agents. Alpha interferons are cytokines produced by nucleated cells (predominantly natural killer (NK) leukocytes) upon exposure to live or inactivated virus, double-stranded RNA or bacterial products. These agents bind to specific cell-surface receptors, resulting in the transcription and translation of genes containing an interferon-specific response element. The proteins so produced mediate many complex effects, including antiviral effects (viral protein synthesis); antiproliferative effects (cellular growth inhibition and alteration of cellular differentiation); anticancer effects (interference with oncogene expression); and immune-modulating effects (natural killer cell activation, alteration of cell surface antigen expression, and augmentation of lymphocyte and macrophage cytotoxicity). Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40467&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40467&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C225″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

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alfa-krystaliny – řetězec A

One of the subunits of alpha-crystallins. Unlike ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN the expression of ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN is limited primarily to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE).
MSH

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alpha-Atrial Natriuretic Peptide

A potent circulating form of ANP that is a 28-amino acid peptide. It derives from the (99-126) amino acids of prohormone gamma-ANP, also known as ANP (1-126).
MSH

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alfa-fetoproteiny

The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
MSH

class of embryonic serum alpha globulins which appear in early development; in adult serum, the presence of AFP indicates certain pathologic states, especially liver neoplasms.
CSP

A protein normally produced by a fetus. AFP levels are usually undetectable in the blood of healthy adult men or women (who are not pregnant). An elevated level of AFP suggests the presence of either a primary liver cancer or germ cell tumor.
NCI

Alpha-fetoprotein is a major plasma protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during fetal life. Alpha-fetoprotein expression in adults is often associated with hepatoma or teratoma. However, hereditary persistence of alpha-fetoprotein may also be found in individuals with no obvious pathology. The protein is thought to be the fetal counterpart of serum albumin, and the alpha-fetoprotein and albumin genes are present in tandem in the same transcriptional orientation on chromosome 4. Alpha-fetoprotein is found in monomeric as well as dimeric and trimeric forms, and binds copper, nickel, fatty acids and bilirubin. The level of alpha-fetoprotein in amniotic fluid is used to measure renal loss of protein to screen for spina bifida and anencephaly. (from LocusLink)
NCI

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alfa-globuliny

blood plasma or serum protein that is alkaline and has great electrophoretic mobility.
CSP

Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.
MSH

A type of globulin in plasma that in electrically charged solutions exhibits greatest colloidal mobility among that of serum globulins.
NCI

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alfa-makroglobuliny

Glycoproteins with a molecular weight of approximately 620,000 to 680,000. Precipitation by electrophoresis is in the alpha region. They include alpha 1-macroglobulins and alpha 2-macroglobulins. These proteins exhibit trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, thrombin-, and plasmin-binding activity and function as hormonal transporters.
MSH

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alfa částice

Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.
MSH

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elektroencefalografie – alfa rytmus

Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.
MSH

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alfa-amanitin

A cyclic octapeptide with a thioether bridge between the cystine and tryptophan. It inhibits RNA POLYMERASE II. Poisoning may require LIVER TRANSPLANTATION.
MSH

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alfa-amylasy

Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.
MSH

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alfa-chlorhydrin

A chlorinated propanediol compound that has shown anti-fertility activity in males and has been used as a chemosterilant in rodents.
MSH

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alfa-krystaliny

A subclass of crystallins that provides the majority of refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Alpha-crystallins also act as molecular chaperones that bind to denatured proteins, keep them in solution and thereby maintain the translucency of the lens. The proteins exist as large oligomers that are formed from ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN and ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN subunits.
MSH

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eflornithin

An inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, the rate limiting enzyme of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway.
MSH

A substance that is being studied in the prevention of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called antiprotozoals.
NCI

A difluoromethylated ornithine compound with antineoplastic activity. Eflornithine irreversibly inhibits ornithine decarboxylase, an enzyme required for polyamine biosynthesis, thereby inhibiting the formation and proliferation of tumor cells. Polyamines are involved in nucleosome oligomerization and DNA conformation, creating a chromatin environment that stimulates neoplastic transformation of cells. This agent has been shown to induce apoptosis in leiomyoma cells. (NCI04)
NCI

A difluoromethylated ornithine compound with antineoplastic activity. Eflornithine irreversibly inhibits ornithine decarboxylase, an enzyme required for polyamine biosynthesis, thereby inhibiting the formation and proliferation of tumor cells. Polyamines are involved in nucleosome oligomerization and DNA conformation, creating a chromatin environment that stimulates neoplastic transformation of cells. This agent has been shown to induce apoptosis in leiomyoma cells. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39754&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39754&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C226″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

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alfa-galaktosidasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-galactose residues in alpha-galactosides including galactose oligosaccharides, galactomannans, and galactolipids.
MSH

hydrolyses terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-galactose residues in alpha-D-galactosides, including galactose oligosaccharides, galactomannans and galactolipids.
CSP

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alfa-globiny

Members of the alpha-globin family. In humans, they are encoded in a gene cluster on CHROMOSOME 16. They include zeta-globin and alpha-globin. There are also pseudogenes of zeta (theta-zeta) and alpha (theta-alpha) in the cluster. Adult HEMOGLOBIN is comprised of 2 alpha-globin chains and 2 beta-globin chains.
MSH

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alfa-glukosidasy

Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.
MSH

hydrolyses terminal, non-reducing 1,4-linked alpha-D- glucose residues with release of alpha-D-glucose.
CSP

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alpha-Lactalbumin

Alpha-lactalbumin (142 aa, ~16 kDa) is encoded by the human LALBA gene. This protein plays a role in the regulation of lactose synthesis.
NCI

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alfa-MSH

A 13-amino acid peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE, the N-terminal segment of ACTH. ACTH (1-13) is amidated at the C-terminal to form ACTH (1-13)NH2 which in turn is acetylated to form alpha-MSH in the secretory granules. Alpha-MSH stimulates the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates.
MSH

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talasémie alfa

A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the alpha chains of hemoglobin. The severity of this condition can vary from mild anemia to death, depending on the number of genes deleted.
MSH

A genetic hematologic disorder characterized by partial or complete absence of the alpha globin chains of the heme molecule.
NCI

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