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alpha-Thrombin

A recombinant peptide that is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous thrombin. Thrombin, a serine protease, plays significant roles in the coagulation cascade, such as breaking down soluble fibrinogen to promote fibrin clot formation, as well as activating factor XI, factor V, and factor VIII.
NCI

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alfaprodin

An opioid analgesic chemically related to and with an action resembling that of MEPERIDINE, but more rapid in onset and of shorter duration. It has been used in obstetrics, as pre-operative medication, for minor surgical procedures, and for dental procedures. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1067)
MSH

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algeston

A synthetic progestational dihydroxy derivative of PROGESTERONE. Its acetonide possesses anti-inflammatory properties.
MSH

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Alphavirus

genus of Togaviridae, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae; viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes.
CSP

A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
MSH

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alprazolam

A triazolobenzodiazepine compound with antianxiety and sedative-hypnotic actions, that is efficacious in the treatment of PANIC DISORDERS, with or without AGORAPHOBIA, and in generalized ANXIETY DISORDERS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p238)
MSH

8-chloro-1-methyl-6-phenyl-s-triazolo benzodiazepine, has both antidepressant and anxiolytic properties; possible efficacy in alcohol withdrawal therapy; abuse can lead to habituation or addiction.
CSP

a drug used to treat anxiety disorders and panic attacks
CHV

A drug used to treat anxiety disorders and panic attacks. It is being studied in the treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by some cancer treatments. It is a type of benzodiazepine.
NCI

A triazolobenzodiazepine agent with anxiolytic, sedative-hypnotic and anticonvulsant activities. Alprazolam binds to a specific site distinct from the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) binding site on the benzodiazepine-GABA-A-chloride ionophore receptor complex located in the limbic, thalamic and hypothalamic regions of the central nervous system (CNS). This binding causes an allosteric modification of the receptor and enhances the affinity of GABA to the receptor leading to an increase in the frequency of chloride-channel opening events. This leads to an increase in chloride ion conductance, neuronal hyperpolarization, inhibition of the action potential and leads to a decrease in neuronal excitability. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39659&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39659&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C227″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A triazolobenzodiazepine agent with anxiolytic, sedative-hypnotic and anticonvulsant activities. Alprazolam binds to a specific site distinct from the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) binding site on the benzodiazepine-GABA-A-chloride ionophore receptor complex located in the limbic, thalamic and hypothalamic regions of the central nervous system (CNS). This binding causes an allosteric modification of the receptor and enhances the affinity of GABA to the receptor leading to an increase in the frequency of chloride-channel opening events. This leads to an increase in chloride ion conductance, neuronal hyperpolarization, inhibition of the action potential and leads to a decrease in neuronal excitability.
NCI

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alprenolol

One of the ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS used as an antihypertensive, anti-anginal, and anti-arrhythmic agent.
MSH

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alprostadil

A potent vasodilator agent that increases peripheral blood flow.
MSH

The naturally occuring prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) which displays a variety of pharmacologic actions. Alprostadil is a potent vasodilator agent that increases peripheral blood flow, inhibits platelet aggregation, and induces bronchodilation. Used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction, this agent produces corporal smooth muscle relaxation by binding to PGE receptors, resulting in the activation of adenylate cyclase and the subsequent accumulation of 3`5`-cAMP. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=360459&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=360459&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C28816″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A drug that is used to treat impotence (inability to have an erection) and is being studied in the treatment of sexual problems in men who have had surgery for prostate cancer. It is a type of vasodilator.
NCI

The naturally occuring prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) which displays a variety of pharmacologic actions. Alprostadil is a potent vasodilator agent that increases peripheral blood flow, inhibits platelet aggregation, and induces bronchodilation. Used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction, this agent produces corporal smooth muscle relaxation by binding to PGE receptors, resulting in the activation of adenylate cyclase and the subsequent accumulation of 3`5`-cAMP.
NCI

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Alseroxylon

An alkaloidal extract from RAUWOLFIA.
MSH

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Alternaria

A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including several plant pathogens and at least one species which produces a highly phytotoxic antibiotic. Its teleomorph is Lewia.
MSH

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alternativní sestřih

A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
MSH

Alternate Splicing is a process in which multiple protein isoforms or products are generated from a single gene as a result of splicing together different nonconsecutive exons during the processing of initially identical nascent transcripts of a gene into mature mRNA transcripts. An exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form the mRNA and generate related proteins, often in a tissue or developmental stage specific manner.
NCI

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alternativní lékařství

diagnostic or therapeutic technique which is presently outside the field of conventional medical practice; for use as a `tag` term index at `T` emphasis level.
CSP

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výška nadmořská

A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
MSH

height above sea level or above the earth`s surface.
CSP

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výšková nemoc

A morbid condition of ANOXIA caused by the reduced available oxygen at high altitudes.
MSH

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altruismus

consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.
CSP

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elementy Alu

The Alu sequence family (named for the restriction endonuclease cleavage enzyme Alu I) is the most highly repeated interspersed repeat element in humans (over a million copies). It is derived from the 7SL RNA component of the SIGNAL RECOGNITION PARTICLE and contains an RNA polymerase III promoter. Transposition of this element into coding and regulatory regions of genes is responsible for many heritable diseases.
MSH

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kamencové sloučeniny

Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.
MSH

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hliník

A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
MSH

extremely light, whitish, lustrous, metallic element, obtainable from bauxite or clay; atomic number, 13.
CSP

A metallic element that is found combined with other elements in the earth`s crust. It is also found in small amounts in soil, water, and many foods. It is used in medicine and dentistry and in many products such as foil, cans, pots and pans, airplanes, siding, and roofs. High levels of aluminum in the body can be harmful.
NCI

A metallic element in the boron group with atomic symbol Al, atomic number 13, and atomic weight 27.
NCI

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hydroxid hlinitý

A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.
MSH

An inorganic compound containing aluminum. Used in various immunologic preparations to improve immunogenicity, aluminum hydroxide adjuvant consists of aluminum hydroxide gel in a saline solution. In vaccines, this agent binds to the protein conjugate, resulting in improved antigen processing by the immune system. (NCI04)
NCI

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oxid hlinitý

An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
MSH

compound, occurring naturally as corundum and in hydrated form as bauxite, that is the raw material in aluminum production.
CSP

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hliník – silikáty

Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley`s Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
MSH

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resorpce alveolární kosti

Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.
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processus alveolaris

The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.
MSH

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alveolární lišta – augmentace

Preprosthetic surgery involving rib, cartilage, or iliac crest bone grafts, usually autologous, or synthetic implants for rebuilding the alveolar ridge.
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alveolektomie

Subtotal or complete excision of the alveolar process of the maxilla or mandible. (Dorland, 28th ed)
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alveolitida alergická

A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.
MSH

conditions in which inhalation of organic dusts results in hypersensitivity reactions at the alveolar level, associated with the production of precipitins.
CSP

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alveoloplastika

Conservative contouring of the alveolar process, in preparation for immediate or future denture construction. (Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

Surgical preparation of the alveolar ridges, commonly used for the reception of dentures.
NCI

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Alzheimerova nemoc

A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
MSH

neurodegenerative disorder of the CNS resulting in progressive loss of memory and intellectual functions; begins in the middle or later years; characterized by brain lesions such as neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques.
CSP

Alzheimer`s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among older people. Dementia is a brain disorder that seriously affects a person`s ability to carry out daily activities.

AD begins slowly. It first involves the parts of the brain that control thought, memory and language. People with AD may have trouble remembering things that happened recently or names of people they know. A related problem, mild cognitive impairment(MCI), causes more memory problems than normal for people of the same age. Many, but not all, people with MCI will develop AD.

In AD, over time, symptoms get worse. People may not recognize family members or have trouble speaking, reading or writing. They may forget how to brush their teeth or comb their hair. Later on, they may become anxious or aggressive, or wander away from home. Eventually, they need total care. This can cause great stress for family members who must care for them.

AD usually begins after age 60. The risk goes up as you get older. Your risk is also higher if a family member has had the disease.

No treatment can stop the disease. However, some drugs may help keep symptoms from getting worse for a limited time.

NIH: National Institute on Aging


MEDLINEPLUS

A brain disorder that usually starts in late middle age or old age and gets worse over time. Symptoms include loss of memory, confusion, difficulty thinking, and changes in language, behavior, and personality.
NCI

A progressive, neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of function and death of nerve cells in several areas of the brain leading to loss of cognitive function such as memory and language.
NCI

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Amanita

A genus of fungi of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales; most species are poisonous.
MSH

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amanitiny

Cyclic peptides extracted from carpophores of various mushroom species. They are potent inhibitors of RNA polymerases in most eukaryotic species, blocking the production of mRNA and protein synthesis. These peptides are important in the study of transcription. Alpha-amanitin is the main toxin from the species Amanitia phalloides, poisonous if ingested by humans or animals.
MSH

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amantadin

An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.
MSH

antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A; it is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia.
CSP

A synthetic tricyclic amine with antiviral, antiparkinsonian, and antihyperalgesic activities. Amantadine appears to exert its antiviral effect against the influenza A virus by interfering with the function of the transmembrane domain of the viral M2 protein, thereby preventing the release of infectious viral nucleic acids into host cells. Furthermore, this agent prevents virus assembly during virus replication. Amantadine exerts its antiparkinsonian effects by stimulating the release of dopamine from striatal dopaminergic nerve terminals and inhibiting its pre-synaptic reuptake. This agent may also exert some anticholinergic effect through inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor-mediated stimulation of acetylcholine, resulting in antihyperalgesia.
NCI

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