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amaranth – barvivo

A sulfonic acid-based naphthylazo dye used as a coloring agent for foodstuffs and medicines and as a dye and chemical indicator. It was banned by the FDA in 1976 for use in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
MSH

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Ambenonium

A bisquaternary ammonium alcohol with parasympathomimetic activity. The positive charge of ambenonium allows it to act as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor by binding to the anionic site at the reactive center of acetylcholinesterase, preventing the breakdown of acetylcholine and producing an indirect cholinomimetic effect at both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. Ambenonium also has direct agonist activity at nicotinic receptors, potentiating the cholinomimetic effect at the neuromuscular junction.
NCI

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ambenoniumchlorid

A quaternary ammonium compound that is an inhibitor of cholinesterase activity with actions similar to those of NEOSTIGMINE, but of longer duration. Ambenonium is given by mouth in the treatment of myasthenia gravis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1112)
MSH

The chloride salt form of ambenonium, a quaternary ammonium compound with parasympathomimetic activity. Ambenonium chloride is a rapid indirect-acting cholinergic agonist that reversibly blocks the activity of acetylcholinesterase, thereby prevents acetylcholine hydrolysis and prolonging its activity on nicotinic receptors at the neuromuscular junction.
NCI

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amblyopie

A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications.
MSH

impairment of vision without detectable organic lesion of the eye.
CSP

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ambroxol

A metabolite of BROMHEXINE that stimulates mucociliary action and clears the air passages in the respiratory tract. It is usually administered as the hydrochloride.
MSH

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sanitky

A vehicle equipped for transporting patients in need of emergency care.
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ambulantní péče

Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.
MSH

services rendered by members of the health profession (or under their supervision) for the benefit of patients who come to the hospital or clinic for diagnosis or treatment but do not occupy a bed.
CSP

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ambulantní zařízení

Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.
MSH

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ambulantní péče – informační systémy

Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of ambulatory care services and facilities.
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ambulantní chirurgické výkony

Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.
MSH

A surgical procedure performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.
NCI

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Ambystoma

A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.
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Ambystoma mexicanum

A salamander found in Mexican mountain lakes and accounting for about 30 percent of the urodeles used in research. The axolotl remains in larval form throughout its life, a phenomenon known as neoteny.
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Ambystomatidae

A family of the class Urodela which includes 4 living genera, about 33 species, and occurs only in North America. Adults are usually terrestrial, but the larval forms are aquatic.
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amdinocilin

Amidinopenicillanic acid derivative with broad spectrum antibacterial action. It is poorly absorbed if given orally and is used in urinary infections and typhus.
MSH

A semisynthetic, broad spectrum beta-lactam penicillin with antibacterial activity. Amdinocillin specifically binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP 2) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This interrupts bacterial cell wall synthesis and results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and causes cell lysis. Given the fact that most beta-lactam penicillins bind almost exclusively to PBPs 1 and 3, amdinocillin is able to synergize with other penicillins in the treatment against bacterial infections.
NCI

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amdinocilin pivoxil

Pivaloyloxymethyl ester of amdinocillin that is well absorbed orally, but broken down to amdinocillin in the intestinal mucosa. It is active against gram-negative organisms and used as for amdinocillin.
MSH

The pivoxil ester form of a semisynthetic, broad spectrum beta-lactam penicillin with antibacterial activity. Amdinocillin specifically binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP 2) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This interrupts bacterial cell wall synthesis and results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall, eventually causing cell lysis.
NCI

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amébiáza

Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.
MSH

infection with any of various amebae; an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.
CSP

A parasitic infectious disorder caused by amoebas. The parasite may cause colitis which is manifested with bloody diarrheas, abdominal pain, nausea and fever. In rare cases it may spread to the liver, brain and lungs.
NCI

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amébicidy

Agents which are destructive to amebae, especially the parasitic species causing AMEBIASIS in man and animal.
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ameloblastom

An immature epithelial tumor of the JAW originating from the epithelial rests of Malassez or from other epithelial remnants of the ENAMEL from the developmental period. It is a slowly growing tumor, usually benign, but displays a marked propensity for invasive growth.
MSH

The most common odontogenic tumor, arising from the epithelial component of the embryonic tooth and usually affecting the molar-ramus region of the mandible or maxilla. Although most ameloblastomas are morphologically and clinically benign, they may cause extensive local destruction, recur, or metastasize.
NCI

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ameloblasty

Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. Their functions include contribution to the development of the dentinoenamel junction by the deposition of a layer of the matrix, thus producing the foundation for the prisms (the structural units of the DENTAL ENAMEL), and production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (From Jablonski`s Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
MSH

cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the enamel organ; functions include contribution to the development of the dentinoenamel junction by the deposition of a layer of the matrix, thus producing the foundation for dental enamel, and production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance.
CSP

Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the enamel organ. Their functions include contribution to the development of the dentinoenamel junction by the deposition of a layer of the matrix, thus producing the foundation for the prisms (the structural units of the dental enamel), and production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (MeSH)
NCI

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amelogeneze

The elaboration of dental enamel by ameloblasts, beginning with its participation in the formation of the dentino-enamel junction to the production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
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amelogenesis imperfecta

A clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of hereditary conditions characterized by malformed DENTAL ENAMEL, usually involving DENTAL ENAMEL HYPOPLASIA and/or TOOTH HYPOMINERALIZATION.
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amenorea

Absence of menstruation.
MSH

absence of menses for three months or more.
CSP

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Amerika

The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.
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Americká onkologická společnost

A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of cancer through education and research.
MSH

A nationwide, community-based voluntary health organization, the largest private source of cancer research funds in the U.S. Headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, the ACS has state divisions and more than 3,400 local offices. ACS provides information on cancer incidence, mortality, causes, manifestations, treatment, and prevention, as well as on cancer research and clinical trials, and promotes beneficial policies, laws, and regulations for patients and families affected by cancer.
NCI

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Americká stomatologická asociace

Professional society representing the field of dentistry.
MSH

A professional association of dentists, committed to advancing the public`s oral health, the ethical and scientific advancement of the field, and the professional advancement of its members.
NCI

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Americká kardiologická asociace

A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.
MSH

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Americká nemocniční asociace

A professional society in the United States whose membership is composed of hospitals.
MSH

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American Indians

Denotes a person having origins in one of the indigenous peoples of North America, who lived on the continent prior to the European colonization. The term includes individuals belonging to a large number of tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of them still enduring as communities.
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Americká lékařská asociace

Professional society representing the field of medicine.
MSH

A voluntary membership organization of physicians that sets standards for the profession of medicine, and is highly focused on medical education. Publishes JAMA, the Journal of the American Medical Association.
NCI

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Americká ošetřovatelská asociace

Professional society representing the field of nursing.
MSH

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