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amitriptylin

Tricyclic antidepressant with anticholinergic and sedative properties. It appears to prevent the re-uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin at nerve terminals, thus potentiating the action of these neurotransmitters. Amitriptyline also appears to antagonize cholinergic and alpha-1 adrenergic responses to bioactive amines.
MSH

tricyclic antidepressant with anticholinergic and sedative properties; it appears to prevent the re-uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin at nerve terminals, thus potentiating the action of these neurotransmitters; it also appears to antagonize cholinergic and alpha-1 adrenergic responses to bioactive amines.
CSP

A derivative of dibenzocycloheptadiene and a tricyclic antidepressant. Amitriptyline inhibits the re-uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin by the presynaptic neuronal membrane in the central nervous system (CNS), thereby increasing the synaptic concentration of norepinephrine and serotonin. Due to constant stimulation to these receptors, amitriptyline may produce a downregulation of adrenergic and serotonin receptors, which may contribute to the antidepressant activity.
NCI

A drug that is used to treat depression and may be given to treat anxiety, sleep disorders, and pain. It is also being studied in an oral or gel form in the treatment of nerve pain caused by chemotherapy. Amitriptyline is a type of tricyclic antidepressant.
NCI

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amitrol

A non-selective post-emergence, translocated herbicide. According to the Seventh Annual Report on Carcinogens (PB95-109781, 1994) this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. (From Merck Index, 12th ed) It is an irreversible inhibitor of CATALASE, and thus impairs activity of peroxisomes.
MSH

A colorless, odorless crystalline, aromatic amine with a bitter taste. Amitrole is a widely used herbicide for nonfood croplands to control annual and perennial grass type weeds, pondweeds and broad leaf. This substance has a very low acute toxicity in humans and is characterized by skin rash, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and nose bleeds. Amitrole is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen. (NCI05)
NCI

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amoniak

Ammonia. A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions.
MSH

colorless alkaline gas formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions.
CSP

A colorless inorganic compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3, usually in gaseous form with a characteristic pungent odor. Ammonia is irritating to the skin, eyes, nose, throat, and lungs. It is essential for many biological processes and has various industrial applications.
NCI

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amoniaklyasy

Enzymes that catalyze the formation of a carbon-carbon double bond by the elimination of AMMONIA. EC 4.3.1.
MSH

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chlorid amonný

An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
MSH

acidifying agent that is used as an expectorant and a diuretic.
CSP

A systemic and urinary acidifying salt. Ammonium chloride helps maintain pH and exerts a mild diuretic effect. This acid forming salt also exerts an expectorant effect by irritating the mucous membranes and is used for alleviation of cough.
NCI

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amonium – sloučeniny

inorganic and organic compounds that contain the radical NH4 or ammonium.
CSP

Inorganic and organic compounds that contain the hypothetical radical NH4.
MSH

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síran amonný

Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
MSH

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amoterapie

Treatment by application of hot sand.
MSH

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amnézie

Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (AMNESIA, RETROGRADE) or to form new memories (AMNESIA, ANTEROGRADE). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the DIENCEPHALON or HIPPOCAMPUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-7)
MSH

A disorder characterized by systematic and extensive loss of memory.
NCI

Systematic and extensive loss of memory caused by organic or psychological factors. The loss may be temporary or permanent, and may involve old or recent memories.
NCI

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amnézie retrográdní

Loss of the ability to recall information that had been previously encoded in memory prior to a specified or approximate point in time. This process may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organic forms may be associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; and a wide variety of other conditions that impair cerebral function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-9)
MSH

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amniocentéza

Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.
MSH

percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid; it is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.
CSP

A prenatal diagnostic procedure in which a small sample of amniotic fluid is removed from the uterus by a needle inserted into the abdomen. This procedure is used to detect various genetic abnormalities in the fetus and/or the sex of the fetus.
NCI

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amnion

The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.
MSH

extraembryonic membrane which contains the embryo and amniotic fluid.
CSP

Thin membrane that encloses the fetus and contains amniotic fluid
CHV

The extraembryonic membrane which contains the embryo and amniotic fluid. (MeSH)
NCI

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Infekce amniové dutiny

Inflammation of the amnion.
NCI

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syndrom amniotického svazku

A disorder present in the newborn infant in which constriction rings or bands, causing soft tissue depressions, encircle digits, extremities, or limbs and sometimes the neck, thorax, or abdomen. They may be associated with intrauterine amputations.
MSH

A rare congenital disorder which is caused by entrapment of anatomic parts of the fetus in fibrous amniotic bands during pregnancy. It may result in the formation of constriction rings around the digits and upper and lower extremities, swelling of the extremities and congenital amputations.
NCI

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plodová voda

A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).
MSH

amniotic cavity fluid which is produced by the amnion and fetal lungs and kidneys.
CSP

The fluid within the amniotic cavity which surrounds and protects the developing embryo. (NCI)
NCI

waters
CHV

The fluid within the amniotic cavity which surrounds and protects the developing embryo. It is initially produced by the amnion and then later by the lungs and kidneys. The amount at term normally varies from 500 to 2000 ml.
NCI

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amobarbital

A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)
MSH

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amodiachin

A 4-aminoquinoline compound with anti-inflammatory properties.
MSH

An orally active 4-aminoquinoline derivative with antimalarial and anti-inflammatory properties. Similar in structure and activity to chloroquine, amodiaquine is effective against some chloroquine-resistant strains, particularly Plasmodium falciparum, the most deadly malaria parasite. Although the mechanism of plasmodicidal action has not been fully elucidated, like other quinoline derivatives, amodiaquine likely is able to inhibit heme polymerase activity in the body. This results in accumulation of free heme, which is toxic to the parasites.
NCI

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Amoeba

A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.
MSH

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amoxapin

The N-demethylated derivative of the antipsychotic agent LOXAPINE that works by blocking the reuptake of norepinephrine, serotonin, or both. It also blocks dopamine receptors.
MSH

A tricyclic antidepressant of the dibenzoxazepine class. Amoxapine exerts its antidepressant effect by inhibiting the re-uptake of norepinephrine and, to a lesser degree, of serotonin, at adrenergic nerve endings and blocks the response of dopamine receptors to dopamine. This drug is used to treat symptoms of depression and may cause tardive dyskinesia. Amoxapine also binds to alpha-adrenergic, histaminergic, and cholinergic receptors which accounts for many of the side effects seen with this agent.
NCI

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amoxicilin

A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.
MSH

A drug used to treat some bacterial infections. Amoxicillin is a form of penicillin that is made in the laboratory. It kills certain types of bacteria. It is a type of antibiotic.
NCI

a kind of antibiotics
CHV

A broad-spectrum, semisynthetic aminopenicillin antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Amoxicillin binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 1A located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This interrupts bacterial cell wall synthesis and results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and causes cell lysis. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42310&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42310&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C237″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A broad-spectrum, semisynthetic aminopenicillin antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Amoxicillin binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 1A located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This interrupts bacterial cell wall synthesis and results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and causes cell lysis.
NCI

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AMP-deaminasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of AMP to IMP. EC 3.5.4.6.
MSH

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amfetamin

A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
MSH

powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase; it is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
CSP

A synthetic substance related to natural sympathomimetic amines. Amphetamine appears to exert its central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral effects indirectly by inducing the release of biogenic amines from their storage sites in nerve terminals. This agent is a commonly abused psychostimulant drug, which may be snorted, taken orally, smoked, or injected. Amphetamine induces psychologic dependence which is manifested by elevated mood, increased wakefulness, concentration, physical performance and a feeling of well-being. With sustained use, the effects of tachycardia and enhanced alertness diminish while psychotoxic effects such as hallucinations and delusions may occur. (NCI04)
NCI

a powerful central nerve system stimulant
CHV

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amfetaminy

Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.
MSH

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obojživelníci

cold blooded chordates; larva are usually aquatic, breathing by gills; adults are terrestrial or aquatic, breathing by lungs and through moist glandular skin.
CSP

VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.
MSH

A taxonomic class of vertebrates that include frogs, toads, newts, salamanders, and gymnophiona. Amphibians are cold blooded land animals that lay eggs in the water. The juveniles of this class metamorphose from water-breathing organisms to air-breathing organisms upon adult maturation.
NCI

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obojživelníci – jedy

Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.
MSH

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amfolytové směsi

Such mixtures of amphoteric electrolytes or buffers that provide a continuous range of pH in an electric field; used for separating proteins by their isoelectric points, i.e., by isoelectric focusing.
MSH

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amfotericin B

macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.
CSP

A drug used in the treatment of infections caused by fungi. It is a type of antifungal.
NCI

A polyene antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus, with antifungal activity. Amphotericin B binds to ergosterol, an essential component of the fungal cell membrane, thereby causing depolarization of the membrane and altering cell membrane permeability. This leads to leakage of important intracellular components, cell rupture, and eventually cell death. This agent may also induce oxidative damage in fungal cells and has been reported to stimulate host immune cells.
NCI

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ampicilin

semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
CSP

A broad-spectrum, semi-synthetic, beta-lactam penicillin antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Ampicillin binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This interrupts bacterial cell wall synthesis and results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and causes cell lysis. Ampicillin is stable against hydrolysis by a variety of beta-lactamases, therefore, can be used in wide range of gram-positive and -negative infections.
NCI

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ampicilin – rezistence

Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.
MSH

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zesilovače elektronické

Electronic devices that increase the magnitude of a signal`s power level or current.
MSH

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