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antibiotika tuberkulostatická

Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.
MSH

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Macrolide Antibiotics

group of macrocyclic compounds with antibiotic action, formed by chain extension of multiple proprionates and cyclized into a large lactone; often glycosylated.
CSP

A group of antibiotics containing a macrocyclic lactone ring linked glycosidically to one or more sugar moieties. These antibiotics are produced by certain species of Streptomyces. They often inhibit protein synthesis by binding to the 50S subunits of 70S ribosomes. (MeSH)
NCI

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protilátky

Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
MSH

infection-fighting protein molecule in blood or secretory fluids that tags, neutralizes, and helps destroy pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria or viruses and toxins; they are generally known as immunoglobulins, and are made and secreted by B-lymphocytes in response to stimulation by antigens; each specific antibody binds only to the specific antigen that stimulated its production.
CSP

A protein made by plasma cells (a type of white blood cell) in response to an antigen (a substance that causes the body to make a specific immune response). Each antibody can bind to only one specific antigen. The purpose of this binding is to help destroy the antigen. Some antibodies destroy antigens directly. Others make it easier for white blood cells to destroy the antigen.
NCI

A type of protein made by B lymphocytes in response to a foreign substance (antigen). Each antibody only binds to a specific antigen, helping to destroy the antigen directly or by assisting white blood cells to destroy the antigen.
NCI

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protilátky anti-idiotypické

Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
MSH

antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotypes) on a particular immunoglobulin (antibody) molecule.
CSP

An antibody directed against the individual antigenic determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of an immunoglobulin molecule. In principle an anti-idiotype antibody should inhibit a specific immune response and they are important to the regulation of the immune system.
NCI

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antinukleární protilátky

Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren`s syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
MSH

autoimmune, pathological antibodies against histones, DNA, nuclear RNA, or other components of the cell nucleus.
CSP

An autoimmune antibody that is directed against structures within the nucleus of the cell.
NCI

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protilátky bakteriální

Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
MSH

immunoglobulins induced by exposure to bacterial antigens.
CSP

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protilátky fungální

Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
MSH

immunoglobulins induced by exposure to fungal antigens.
CSP

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protilátky helmintové

Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
MSH

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protilátky heterofilní

Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens–i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response–is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
MSH

antibody produced by the introduction of heterophile antigen into a species which does not carry it.
CSP

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monoklonální protilátky

Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
MSH

homogeneous antibody that is produced by a clone of antibody forming cells and that binds with a single antigenic determinant.
CSP

A type of protein made in the laboratory that can bind to substances in the body, including tumor cells. There are many kinds of monoclonal antibodies. Each monoclonal antibody is made to find one substance. Monoclonal antibodies are being used to treat some types of cancer and are being studied in the treatment of other types. They can be used alone or to carry drugs, toxins, or radioactive materials directly to a tumor.
NCI

An antibody produced by a clone or genetically homogenous fast-growing cells i.e., hybridoma. Hybridoma cells are cloned to establish cell lines producing a specific antibody that is chemically and immunologically homogeneous. They are widely used in cancer detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
NCI

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protilátky nádorové

Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
MSH

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protilátky protozoální

Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
MSH

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protilátky virové

Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
MSH

immunoglobulins induced by exposure to viral antigens.
CSP

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protilátky – afinita

A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of “avidity,” which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
MSH

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protilátky – rozmanitost

The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
MSH

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protilátky – tvorba

The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
MSH

synthesis of antibodies in response to B-cell activation by antigens; includes genetic regulation, recombination, all aspects of gene expression of the antibodies as well as the proliferation and differentiation of the B lymphocytes into plasma cells or memory cells.
CSP

The appearance of immunoglobulin due to biosynthesis or secretion following a cellular stimulus, resulting in an increase in its intracellular or extracellular levels. [GOC:add, ISBN:0781735149 “Fundamental Immunology”]
GO

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protilátky – specificita

The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
MSH

property of antibodies which enables them to react with some antigenic determinants and not with others; specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
CSP

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močový test bakteriální s navázanou protilátkou

Fluorescent antibody technique for visualizing antibody-bacteria complexes in urine. The presence or absence of antibody-coated bacteria in urine correlates with localization of urinary tract infection in the kidney or bladder, respectively.
MSH

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cytotoxicita buněčná závislá na protilátce

The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a “killer” cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
MSH

Cytolysis of target cells by natural killer cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, monocytes, or macrophages following engagement of antibodies bound to the target cells by Fc receptors on the effector cells. [ISBN:0781735149 “Fundamental Immunology”, PMID:11677095, PMID:9581795]
GO

A type of immune reaction in which a target cell or microbe is coated with antibodies and killed by certain types of white blood cells. The white blood cells bind to the antibodies and release substances that kill the target cells or microbes.
NCI

The target killing of a cell depending on antibody recognition. An antibody is directed to the target by antigen-binding arms and anchors to the killer cell by an Fc receptor. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IgG whose Fc portion is intact. The effector “killer” cell possesses Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
NCI

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buňky produkující protilátky

Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
MSH

Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. (MeSH)
NCI

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anticestodální látky

Agents used to treat tapeworm infestations in man or animals.
MSH

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anticholesteremika

Substances used to lower plasma cholesterol levels.
MSH

agents which reduce or control high cholesterol and bring about lower cholesterol levels in both the blood and the liver.
CSP

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antikoagulancia

Agents that prevent clotting.
MSH

externally administered agents that prevent blood clotting.
CSP

A substance that is used to prevent and treat blood clots in blood vessels and the heart.
NCI

A drug that prevents the clotting of blood.
CHV

If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke by reducing the formation of blood clots in your arteries and veins. You may also take a blood thinner if you have

There are two main types of blood thinners. Anticoagulants, such as heparin or warfarin (also called Coumadin), work on chemical reactions in your body to lengthen the time it takes to form a blood clot. Antiplatelet drugs, such as aspirin, prevent blood cells called platelets from clumping together to form a clot.

When you take a blood thinner, follow directions carefully. Make sure that your healthcare provider knows all of the medicines and supplements you are using.


MEDLINEPLUS

Any agent capable of preventing blood clot formation.
NCI

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Anticoagulation Therapy

Drug treatment to thin the blood in order to prevent or reduce blood clot formation.
NCI

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antikodon

The sequential set of three nucleotides in TRANSFER RNA that interacts with its complement in MESSENGER RNA, the CODON, during translation in the ribosome.
MSH

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antikonvulzíva

Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.
MSH

agent used to prevent seizures or reduce their severity.
CSP

Medicine to stop, prevent, or control seizures (convulsions).
NCI

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antidepresiva

Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.
MSH

mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions.
CSP

A drug used to treat depression.
NCI

Antidepressants are medicines that treat depression. Your doctor can prescribe them for you. They can improve your mood, sleep, appetite and concentration. It may take several weeks for them to help. There are several types of antidepressants. You and your doctor may have to try several before finding what works best for you.

Medicines sometimes cause unwanted side effects. For example, when you first start your antidepressant you may feel tired, have trouble sleeping or feel sick to your stomach. The side effects usually go away after a short time. Tell your doctor if you have any side effects. You should also let your doctor know if you take any other medicines, vitamins or herbal supplements.

It is important to keep taking your medicines, even if you feel better. Do not stop taking your medicines without talking to your doctor. You often need to stop antidepressants gradually.

NIH: National Institute of Mental Health


MEDLINEPLUS

Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several monoamine oxidase inhibitors are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems. (MeSH)
NCI

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antidepresiva tricyklická

Substances that contain a fused three-ring moiety and are used in the treatment of depression. These drugs block the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into axon terminals and may block some subtypes of serotonin, adrenergic, and histamine receptors. However the mechanism of their antidepressant effects is not clear because the therapeutic effects usually take weeks to develop and may reflect compensatory changes in the central nervous system.
MSH

class of antidepressants with 3 ring chemical structures; mechanism unknown, but believed to involve serotonin metabolism, transport, or receptor sensitivity.
CSP

A type of drug used to treat depression.
NCI

Mood-stimulating agents which contain a tricyclic structure and are used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. This group of agents appear to act through brain catecholamine systems.
NCI

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obstipancia

Miscellaneous agents found useful in the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. They have no effect on the agent(s) that cause diarrhea, but merely alleviate the condition.
MSH

A substance used to treat diarrhea (frequent and watery bowel movements).
NCI

Miscellaneous agents found useful in the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. They have no effect on the agent(s) that cause diarrhea, but merely alleviate the condition. (MeSH)
NCI

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antidota

Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.
MSH

agent counteracting or neutralizing the action of a poison.
CSP

A remedy or other agent used to neutralize or counteract the effects of a poison
CHV

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