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antiemetika

Drugs used to prevent NAUSEA or VOMITING.
MSH

drugs used to prevent nausea or vomiting; act by a wide range of mechanisms; some act on the medullary control centers while others effect the peripheral receptors.
CSP

A drug that prevents or reduces nausea and vomiting.
NCI

Drugs used to prevent nausea or vomiting. Antiemetics act by a wide range of mechanisms. Some act on the medullary control centers (the vomiting center and the chemoreceptive trigger zone) while others affect the peripheral receptors. (MeSH)
NCI

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antiepileptika

A drug or other substance used to prevent or stop seizures or convulsions.
NCI

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antifibrinolytika

Agents that prevent fibrinolysis or lysis of a blood clot or thrombus. Several endogenous antiplasmins are known. The drugs are used to control massive hemorrhage and in other coagulation disorders.
MSH

agents that prevent fibrinolysis or lysis of a blood clot or thrombus; several endogenous antiplasmins are known; these agents are used to control massive hemorrhage and in other coagulation disorders.
CSP

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Antiflatulents

Natural or synthetic compounds usually administered orally, Antiflatulent Agents relieve or prevent flatulence, excess gas in the stomach and intestines, by adsorbing the gas, stimulating intestinal elimination of gas, or preventing gas formation. Alpha-galactosidase and activated charcoal are used against flatulence. (NCI04)
NCI

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odpěňovadla

Agents used to prevent the formation of foam or to treat flatulence or bloat.
MSH

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antifungální látky

Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
MSH

substances that are destructive to fungi, suppress their reproduction or growth, or are effective against fungal infection.
CSP

a drug that kills fungus
CHV

Drugs that treat infections caused by fungi.
NCI

Substances that treat systemic or topical infections caused by fungi. Antifungal agents kill or inhibit the growth of fungi, by various mechanisms. Mechanisms include inhibition of fungal mitosis, impairing synthesis or binding to ergosterol, incorporation into RNA or DNA synthesis inhibition.
NCI

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antigen-protilátka komplex

The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
MSH

product of an antigen antibody reaction; may also contain complement.
CSP

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antigen-protilátka reakce

The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
MSH

immune response induced by binding antigen to antibody.
CSP

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buňky předkládající antigen

heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediates the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cell receptor; traditional antigen presenting cells include macrophages, dendritic cells, Langerhans cells, and B-lymphocytes; follicular dendritic cells are also considered to be antigen presenting cells by some.
CSP

A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
MSH

A type of immune cell that boosts immune responses by showing antigens on its surface to other cells of the immune system. An antigen-presenting cell is a type of phagocyte.
NCI

A cell that enables a T-lymphocyte to recognize an antigen by engulfing the antigen, breaking down the antigen into smaller fragments which bind to MHC molecules on the surface of the antigen presenting cell. The T-lymphocyte can now recognize and bind with the MHC-linked antigen.
NCI

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epitopy

Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
MSH

The simplest form of an antigenic determinant, on a complex antigenic molecule, which can combine with antibody or T cell receptor.
NCI

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antigenní variace

Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
MSH

Any process involved in the biological strategy of changing antigenic determinants on the surface that are exposed to another organism`s immune system. [GOC:mb]
GO

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antigeny

Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
MSH

any substance recognized by the immune system and inducing an immune reaction.
CSP

Any substance that causes the body to make a specific immune response.
NCI

Any substance, generally a protein, that stimulates the immune system and elicits an immune response. Recognition by the immune system elicits either a T-lymphocyte response, recognizing processed antigens, or a B-lymphocyte response, producing antibodies that bind to unprocessed antigens.
NCI

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antigeny bakteriální

substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
CSP

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antigeny CD

Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
MSH

differentiation antigens (markers) of lymphocyte subsets on cell membrane which are defined by monoclonal antibodies.
CSP

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antigeny CD4

55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
MSH

helper T-lymphocyte marker that functions as a receptor for MHC class II antigen; also acts as the receptor for HIV.
CSP

CD4 Antigen, encoded by the CD4 gene, is a T-cell surface glycoprotein. CD4 has a role in cell-cell interactions and may act in signal transduction. CD4 is a accessory protein for MHC class-II antigen/T-cell receptor interaction and functions to initiate or augment the early phase of T-cell activation. CD4 enhances T-cell sensitivity to antigen and binds to LCK, which phosphorylates CD3-zeta. CD4 Antigen also serves as an HIV receptor, binding directly to the envelope protein gp120 on HIV. (From LocusLink, OMIM and NCI)
NCI

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antigeny diferenciační

Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
MSH

antigens normally only seen at particular phases of differentiation of a cell type.
CSP

Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation. (MeSH)
NCI

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antigeny diferenciační B-lymfocytární

Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
MSH

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antigeny diferenciační myelomonocytární

Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
MSH

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antigeny diferenciační T-lymfocytární

Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
MSH

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antigeny fungální

substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
CSP

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antigeny helmintové

Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
MSH

part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction; the most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
CSP

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antigeny heterofilní

Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
MSH

antigens occurring on the surface of tissue cells of many different species and showing extensive interspecies cross relationship.
CSP

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antigeny Ly

A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.
MSH

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antigeny nádorové

Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
MSH

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antigeny transformující polyomavirové

Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
MSH

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antigeny protozoální

Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
MSH

any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity.
CSP

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antigeny povrchové

Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
MSH

antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses; usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls.
CSP

Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
NCI

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antigeny T-independentní

Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.
MSH

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antigeny sacharidové asociované s nádorem

Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
MSH

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antigeny virové

substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
CSP

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