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antigeny virové nádorové

Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
MSH

Proteins encoded by the genomes of specific DNA tumor viruses that are associated with the neoplastic transformation of infected cells. T-antigens stimulate the production of antibodies and are immunogenic.
NCI

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Antigua

An island in the Caribbean Sea, east of Puerto Rico. (NCI)
NCI

An island in the Lesser Antilles, one of the Leeward Islands. With Barbuda and Redonda, an uninhabited island, it constitutes the independent state of Antigua and Barbuda. Its capital is St. Johns.
MSH

An island in the Caribbean Sea, east of Puerto Rico. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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Antigua a Barbuda

Islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico. (NCI)
NCI

Islands in the Lesser Antilles, within the Leeward Islands. ANTIGUA, BARBUDA, and Redonda, an uninhabited island, constitute the independent state of ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA. The capital is St. Johns.
MSH

Islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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Antihistamines

group of drugs that counteract the action of histamine; conventional antihistamines, as those used in treating allergies, block the H1 histamine receptors, whereas others block the H2 receptors.
CSP

NOTE: Excludes H2-antagonists (GA301); combination cold products (RE500).
NDFRT

Price: $1.00

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antihypertenzíva

Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
MSH

agent that reduces high blood pressure.
CSP

High blood pressure, also called hypertension, usually has no symptoms. But it can cause serious problems such as stroke, heart failure, heart attack and kidney failure. If you cannot control your high blood pressure through healthy lifestyle habits such as losing weight and reducing sodium in your diet, your doctor may prescribe medicines.

Blood pressure medicines work in different ways to lower blood pressure. Some remove extra fluid and salt from the body to lower blood pressure. Others slow down the heartbeat or relax and widen blood vessels. Often, two or more medicines work better than one.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

Any substance used in the treatment of acute or chronic hypertension regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Antihypertensive agents include diuretics, alpha-adrenergic and beta-adrenergic antagonists, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, ganglionic blockers, and vasodilator agents.
NCI

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Antilipemic agent

agent that promotes a reduction of lipoprotein levels in the blood.
CSP

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antilymfocytární sérum

Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.
MSH

Immunoglobulins raised xenogeneically against lymphocyte populations. It is used both as a test for histocompatibility and in conjunction with other immunosuppressive agents to suppress rejection of grafts or organ transplants.
NCI

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antimalarika

Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)
MSH

agent used in the treatment or prevention of malaria.
CSP

Agents used to treat malaria, and are usually classified based on action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human.
NCI

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antimetabolity

Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
MSH

drug that is chemically similar to a naturally occurring metabolite, but differs enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways.
CSP

A drug that is very similar to natural chemicals in a normal biochemical reaction in cells but different enough to interfere with the normal division and functions of cells.
NCI

An antineoplastic agent with a structural similarity to a natural substance that can replace that substance in a normal biochemical pathway and interfere with the normal metabolic processes of cells.
NCI

An antimetabolite with an unknown or unspecified mechanism of action.
NCI

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antimetabolity antitumorózní

Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.
MSH

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antimitotické látky

agent that inhibits or prevents mitosis.
CSP

A type of drug that blocks cell growth by stopping mitosis (cell division). They are used to treat cancer.
NCI

An agent that inhibits tumor growth by interfering with mitotic processes or the assembly of the mitotic machinery.
NCI

Agents that arrest cells in MITOSIS, most notably TUBULIN MODULATORS.
MSH

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antimon

A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.
MSH

metallic element, atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75; used as a metal alloy; forms various medicinal and poisonous salts; toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.
CSP

An element with atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.76.
NCI

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vinan antimonito-draselný

A schistosomicide possibly useful against other parasites. It has irritant emetic properties and may cause lethal cardiac toxicity among other adverse effects.
MSH

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glukonát antimonitosodný

Antimony complex where the metal may exist in either the pentavalent or trivalent states. The pentavalent gluconate is used in leishmaniasis. The trivalent gluconate is most frequently used in schistosomiasis.
MSH

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muskarin – antagonisté

Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.
MSH

Natural or synthetic Antimuscarinic Agents inhibit acetylcholine neurotransmitter action at muscarinic receptors. Antimuscarinic drugs are used as antiarrhythmic, antiparkinson, antiasthmatic, and antispasmodic agents, as well as antidote of the natural mushroom alkaloid muscarine (Amanita muscaria) or to prevent parasympathetic stimulation at neuroeffector junctions. (NCI04)
NCI

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antimycin A

An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
MSH

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antinematodní látky

Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.
MSH

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antitumorózní látky

Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
MSH

agent that inhibits or prevents the development or proliferation of neoplasms.
CSP

A drug used to treat cancer.
NCI

NOTE: Includes hormones (AN500) which are exclusively used as antineoplastics (e.g.,tamoxifen). Excludes other hormones (HS000).
NDFRT

A substance that inhibits the maturation, growth or spread of tumor cells.
NCI

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antitumorózní kombinovaná chemoterapie – protokoly

The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
MSH

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antitumorózní látky fytogenní

Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
MSH

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antioxidancia

Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
MSH

naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added; counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation.
CSP

A substance that protects cells from the damage caused by free radicals (unstable molecules made by the process of oxidation during normal metabolism). Free radicals may play a part in cancer, heart disease, stroke, and other diseases of aging. Antioxidants include beta-carotene, lycopene, vitamins A, C, and E, and other natural and manufactured substances.
NCI

Antioxidants are substances that may protect your cells against the effects of free radicals. Free radicals are molecules produced when your body breaks down food, or by environmental exposures like tobacco smoke and radiation. Free radicals can damage cells, and may play a role in heart disease, cancer and other diseases.

Antioxidant substances include

Antioxidants are found in many foods. These include fruits and vegetables, nuts, grains, and some meats, poultry and fish.


MEDLINEPLUS

A group of organic or inorganic substances capable of preventing the genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of free-radical compounds. Antioxidants bind to and neutralize (`scavenge`) free radicals, thereby transforming them into non-toxic compounds and blocking their genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. This class of agents includes the vitamins C and E, the carotenoids, and selenium. Organic antioxidants are found in high concentrations in fruits, seeds and vegetables. (NCI04)
NCI

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antipain

An oligopeptide produced by various bacteria which acts as a protease inhibitor.
MSH

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antiparazitární látky

Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.
MSH

NOTE: Includes topical pediculicides (AP300).
NDFRT

Drugs used to treat bacterial and parasitic infections and some cancers.
NCI

drug or agent used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.
CSP

Any agent that is effective against infections caused by parasitic organisms and is able to inhibit their growth or kill them. This class consists of anthelmintics and antiprotozoals.
NCI

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antiparkinsonika

Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson`s disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.
MSH

agent used in the treatment of Parkinson`s disease; the most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.
CSP

Any agent that is used in the treatment of Parkinson`s disease. Antiparkinsonian agents act by restoring the striatal balance between dopaminergic and cholinergic neurotransmission.
NCI

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alfa-2-antiplasmin

A member of the serpin superfamily found in plasma that inhibits the lysis of fibrin clots which are induced by plasminogen activator. It is a glycoprotein, molecular weight approximately 70,000 that migrates in the alpha 2 region in immunoelectrophoresis. It is the principal plasmin inactivator in blood, rapidly forming a very stable complex with plasmin.
MSH

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antiplatyhelmintické látky

Agents used to treat cestode, trematode, or other flatworm infestations in man or animals.
MSH

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antiprotozoální látky

Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
MSH

substance that destroys protozoans, or that prevents their growth or reproduction.
CSP

Substances that are destructive to protozoans. (MeSH)
NCI

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antipruritika

Agents, usually topical, that relieve itching (pruritus).
MSH

Price: $1.00

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antipyretika

agent that relieves or reduces fever.
CSP

Drugs that are used to reduce body temperature in fever.
MSH

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antipyrin

An analgesic and antipyretic that has been given by mouth and as ear drops. Antipyrine is often used in testing the effects of other drugs or diseases on drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p29)
MSH

family of N-phenylpyrazolones with nonnarcotic analgesic properties.
CSP

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