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antisepse

The destruction of germs causing disease.
MSH

prevention of infection by means of agents that inhibit or kill infectious microorganisms on environmental surfaces or a body surface such as skin or mucous membranes.
CSP

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antianemika

Agents used to prevent or reverse the pathological events leading to sickling of erythrocytes in sickle cell conditions.
MSH

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asociální osobnost

A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
MSH

personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others through aggressive, antisocial behavior, without remorse or loyalty to anyone.
CSP

A disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others that is manifested in childhood or early adolescence. (adapted from DSM-IV)
NCI

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antispermatogenní látky

Agents, either mechanical or chemical, which destroy spermatozoa in the male genitalia and block spermatogenesis.
MSH

any agent or substance which suppresses, prevents or opposes the formation of spermatozoa.
CSP

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antistreptolysin

Antibodies specific to STREPTOLYSINS which indicate STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
MSH

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antithrombin III

A plasma alpha 2 glycoprotein that accounts for the major antithrombin activity of normal plasma and also inhibits several other enzymes. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
MSH

blood glycoprotein which inhibits thrombin and other blood coagulation factors; important to maintenance of normal blood fluidity.
CSP

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antithrombiny

endogenous family of proteins belonging to the serpin superfamily that neutralizes the action of thrombin; includes fibrin and antithrombin III.
CSP

Endogenous factors and drugs that directly inhibit the action of THROMBIN, usually by blocking its enzymatic activity. They are distinguished from INDIRECT THROMBIN INHIBITORS, such as HEPARIN, which act by enhancing the inhibitory effects of antithrombins.
MSH

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Lymphocyte Immune Globulin, Anti-Thymocyte Globulin

Serum from blood that contains antibodies that bind to human T cells. Antithymocyte globulin is given to a patient before a stem cell transplant to kill T cells and lower the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). It is also used to treat GVHD and after a kidney transplant to help keep the body from rejecting the kidney.
NCI

A purified gamma immunoglobulin (IgG) with immunosuppressive activity. Obtained from animals that have been immunized with human thymocytes, antithymocyte globulin (ATG) specifically recognizes and destroys T lymphocytes. Although not completely understood, the mechanism of action appears to involve T lymphocyte clearance from the circulation and modulation of T lymphocyte activity. Administering ATG with chemotherapy prior to stem cell transplantation may reduce the risk of graft-versus-host (GVH) disease.
NCI

A purified gamma immunoglobulin with immunosuppressive properties. Obtained from rabbits that have been immunized with human thymocytes, antithymocyte globulin specifically recognizes and destroys T lymphocytes. Although the exact mechanism of action is not completely understood, it appears to involve T lymphocyte clearance from the circulation and modulation of T lymphocyte activity. Administering antithymocyte globulin with chemotherapy prior to stem cell transplantation may reduce the risk of graft-versus-host disease. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39337&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39337&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C278″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

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antitoxiny

Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
MSH

antibody against a microbial toxin or an antiserum from animals immunized by injections of a toxin or toxoid, administered as a passive immunizing agent to neutralize a specific microbial toxin.
CSP

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treponematocidní látky

Agents used to treat infections with bacteria of the genus TREPONEMA. This includes SYPHILIS & YAWS.
MSH

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antitrichomonádové látky

Agents used to treat trichomonas infections.
MSH

Any agent that can kill and/or inhibit the growth of anaerobic protists of Trichomonas genus.
NCI

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antituberkulotika

Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: “first-line” agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and “second-line” drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
MSH

drug used in the treatment of tuberculosis.
CSP

Describes a drug or effect that works against tuberculosis (a contagious bacterial infection that usually affects the lungs).
NCI

Any agent that is active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and can be used in the treatment of or in the prevention of tuberculosis.
NCI

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antitusika

Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in the treatment of cough, act locally.
MSH

Any substance that is capable of relieving or suppressing coughing.
NCI

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antiveniny

Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.
MSH

therapeutic antiserum containing antitoxin antibodies capable of neutralizing the venom of snake or poisonous arthropods.
CSP

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antivirové látky

Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
MSH

drug that destroys viruses or prevents their growth or replication.
CSP

Drugs used to treat infections caused by viruses.
NCI

Antiviral agents that have a non-specific classification.
NCI

Any agent that can treat or prevent viral infections by interfering with viral replication inside the host cell.
NCI

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parohy

The horn of an animal of the deer family, typically present only in the male. It differs from the HORNS of other animals in being a solid, generally branched bony outgrowth that is shed and renewed annually. The word antler comes from the Latin anteocularis, ante (before) + oculus (eye). (From Webster, 3d ed)
MSH

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mravenci

Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
MSH

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Anura

one of the three orders of extant amphibians, comprising the frogs and toads.
CSP

An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term “toad” is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
MSH

An amphibian in the order Anura, which includes the toads. The commonest frog genera are Rana (grass frogs) and Hyla (tree frogs).
NCI

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anurie

Absence of urine formation. It is usually associated with complete bilateral ureteral (URETER) obstruction, complete lower urinary tract obstruction, or unilateral ureteral obstruction when a solitary kidney is present.
MSH

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anus

The lower opening of the digestive tract, lying in the cleft between the buttocks, through which fecal matter is extruded.
NCI

The opening of the rectum to the outside of the body.
NCI

The lower opening of the digestive tract, lying in the cleft between the buttocks, through which fecal matter is extruded. (NCI)
NCI

The external outlet of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
MSH

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anus – nemoci

The anus is the opening of the rectum through which stool passes out of your body. Problems with the anus are common. They include hemorrhoids, abscesses, fissures (cracks), and cancer.

Many people are embarrassed to talk about anal troubles. But seeing your doctor about problems in this area is important. This is especially true if you have pain or bleeding. Treatments vary widely depending on the particular problem.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

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anus – nádory

Tumors or cancer of the ANAL CANAL.
MSH

A benign or malignant neoplasm involving the anus.
NCI

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anus neprůchodný

A congenital abnormality characterized by the persistence of the anal membrane, resulting in a thin membrane covering the normal ANAL CANAL. Imperforation is not always complete and is treated by surgery in infancy. This defect is often associated with NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS; MENTAL RETARDATION; and DOWN SYNDROME.
MSH

A congenital birth defect characterized by the absence of a normal anal opening. It may be associated with other congenital abnormalities.
NCI

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úzkost

Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
MSH

unpleasant, but not necessarily pathological, emotional state resulting from an unfounded or irrational perception of danger; compare with FEAR and CLINICAL ANXIETY.
CSP

Fear and anxiety are part of life. You may feel anxious before you take a test or walk down a dark street. This kind of anxiety is useful – it can make you more alert or careful. It usually ends soon after you are out of the situation that caused it. But for millions of people in the United States, the anxiety does not go away, and gets worse over time. They may have chest pains or nightmares. They may even be afraid to leave home. These people have anxiety disorders. Types include

Treatment can involve medicines, therapy or both.

NIH: National Institute of Mental Health


MEDLINEPLUS

Feelings of fear, dread, and uneasiness that may occur as a reaction to stress. A person with anxiety may sweat, feel restless and tense, and have a rapid heart beat. Extreme anxiety that happens often over time may be a sign of an anxiety disorder.
NCI

Apprehension of danger and dread accompanied by restlessness, tension, tachycardia, and dyspnea unattached to a clearly identifiable stimulus.
NCI

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úzkostné poruchy

Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
MSH

general term for the group of specific, anxiety-related, avoidance- prone disorders listed as NTs.
CSP

A disorder characterized by apprehension of danger and dread accompanied by restlessness, tension, tachycardia, and dyspnea unattached to a clearly identifiable stimulus.
NCI

A category of psychiatric disorders which are characterized by anxious feelings or fear often accompanied by physical symptoms associated with anxiety.
NCI

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úzkost kastrační

Anxiety due to fantasized injuries to or loss of the genitals.
MSH

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Separační úzkostná porucha

An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent excessive distress due to fear of separation from the home or from major attachment figures; the distress is developmentally inappropriate and causes impairment in social, academic, or other areas of functioning.
NCI

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aorta

The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
MSH

main trunk from which the systemic arterial system proceeds.
CSP

The largest artery in the body. It carries oxygen-rich blood away from the heart to vessels that reach the rest of the body.
NCI

The major arterial trunk that carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle into the ascending aorta behind the heart, the aortic arch, through the thorax as the descending aorta and through the abdomen as the abdominal aorta; it bifurcates into the left and right common iliac arteries. (NCI)
NCI

The major arterial trunk that carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle into the ascending aorta behind the heart, the aortic arch, through the thorax as the descending aorta and through the abdomen as the abdominal aorta; it bifurcates into the left and right common iliac arteries.
NCI

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aorta abdominalis

The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.
MSH

The portion of the descending aorta that lies within the abdomen, beginning below the diaphragm and ending at its division into the right and left common iliac arteries.
NCI

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aortální aneurysma

An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of AORTA.
MSH

sac formed by the dilatation of the wall of the aorta.
CSP

Most aneurysms — abnormal bulges or “ballooning” in the wall of an artery — occur in the aorta. The aorta is the main artery that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body.

There are two types of aortic aneurysm:

  • Thoracic aortic aneurysms occur in the part of the aorta running through the chest.
  • Abdominal aortic aneurysms occur in the part of the aorta running through the abdomen.

Because aneurysms can develop and become large before causing any symptoms, it is important to look for them in people who are at high risk. Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms is recommended for men who have ever smoked and are between the ages of 65 and 75. Medicines and surgery are the two main treatments for aneurysms.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

A sac formation resulting from the localized dilatation of the wall of the aorta.
NCI

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