Additional pages

astronomie

The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
MSH

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Astrovirus

genus of small, circular RNA viruses in the family Astroviridae; they cause gastroenteritis and are found in the stools of several vertebrates including humans; transmission is by the fecal-oral route.
CSP

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AT bohatá sekvence

A nucleic acid sequence that contains an above average number of ADENINE and THYMINE bases.
MSH

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ataxie

Impairment of the ability to perform smoothly coordinated voluntary movements. This condition may affect the limbs, trunk, eyes, pharynx, larynx, and other structures. Ataxia may result from impaired sensory or motor function. Sensory ataxia may result from posterior column injury or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES. Motor ataxia may be associated with CEREBELLAR DISEASES; CEREBRAL CORTEX diseases; THALAMIC DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; injury to the RED NUCLEUS; and other conditions.
MSH

awkwardness in motor behavior associated with loss of afferent information from the moving part or with loss of control mechanism of the cerebellum.
CSP

Loss of muscle coordination.
NCI

A disorder characterized by lack of coordination of muscle movements resulting in the impairment or inability to perform voluntary activities.
NCI

unable to coordinate muscle movement
CHV

Lack of coordination of muscle movements resulting in the impairment or inability to perform voluntary activities. Causes include peripheral nerve disorders, posterior column injuries, cerebral and cerebellar disorders, basal ganglia disorders, and thalamic disorders.
NCI

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ataxie teleangiektatická

An autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by choreoathetosis beginning in childhood, progressive CEREBELLAR ATAXIA; TELANGIECTASIS of CONJUNCTIVA and SKIN; DYSARTHRIA; B- and T-cell immunodeficiency, and RADIOSENSITIVITY to IONIZING RADIATION. Affected individuals are prone to recurrent sinobronchopulmonary infections, lymphoreticular neoplasms, and other malignancies. Serum ALPHA-FETOPROTEINS are usually elevated. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p688) The gene for this disorder (ATM) encodes a cell cycle checkpoint protein kinase and has been mapped to chromosome 11 (11q22-q23).
MSH

inherited disease characterized by onset in early childhood of progressive cerebellar ataxia, oculocutaneous telangiectasis, and severe sinopulmonary infections.
CSP

Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is a rare, inherited disease that affects the nervous system, immune system and other body systems. Symptoms appear in young children and include

  • Ataxia – trouble coordinating movements
  • Poor balance
  • Slurred speech
  • Tiny, red spider veins, called telangiectasias, on the skin and eyes
  • Lung infections
  • Delayed physical and sexual development

People with AT have an increased risk of developing diabetes and cancer, particularly lymphoma and leukemia. Although it affects the brain, people with AT usually have normal or above normal intelligence.

AT has no cure. Treatments might improve some symptoms. Options include injections to strengthen the immune system, physical and speech therapy and high-dose vitamin therapy. People with AT usually die in their teens or early twenties.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke


MEDLINEPLUS

A rare, inherited, progressive, degenerative disease of childhood that causes loss of muscle control, a weakened immune system, and an increased risk of cancer.
NCI

Rare hereditary disease characterized by extreme sensitivity to ionizing radiation or radiomimetic drugs because of a defect in DNA repair. AT heterozygosity is estimated to occur in more than 2% of the U.S. population; heterozygotes exhibit increased radiation sensitivity and are at increased risk for several types of cancer. The normal version of the gene that is defective in AT appears to activate the p53-dependent response to DNA damage.
NCI

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plíce – atelektáza

collapse of all or part of a lung due to bronchial plugging or the chest cavity being opened to atomspheric pressure.
CSP

Failure of the lung to expand (inflate) completely. This may be caused by a blocked airway, a tumor, general anesthesia, pneumonia or other lung infections, lung disease, or long-term bedrest with shallow breathing. Sometimes called a collapsed lung.
NCI

Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.
MSH

A disorder characterized by the collapse of part or the entire lung.
NCI

The collapse of part or the entire lung due to airway obstruction, infection, tumor, or general anesthesia.
NCI

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atenolol

A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.
MSH

l-p-carbamoylmethylphenoxy-3-isopropylamino -2-propanol, is a peripheral beta blocker used as an antihypertensive; propranolol, by contrast, also has CNS effects.
CSP

a drug that treats rapid heart rate and high blood pressure
CHV

A synthetic isopropylamino-propanol derivative used as an antihypertensive, hypotensive and antiarrhythmic Atenolol acts as a peripheral, cardioselective beta blocker specific for beta-1 adrenergic receptors, without intrinsic sympathomimetic effects. It reduces exercise heart rates and delays atrioventricular conduction, with overall oxygen requirements decreasing. (NCI04)
NCI

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ateroskleróza

age, lifestyle, diet, and gene related degeneration of arteries due to deposition of lipoid plaques (atheromas) on inner arterial walls; main cause of coronary artery disease, a leading cause of death.
CSP

deposition of cholesterol and lipid in the inner layer of the blood vessel
CHV

Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up inside your arteries. Plaque is a sticky substance made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood. Over time, plaque hardens and narrows your arteries. That limits the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your body and can lead to serious problems, including

  • Coronary artery disease. These arteries supply blood to your heart. When they are blocked, you can suffer angina or a heart attack.
  • Carotid artery disease. These arteries supply blood to your brain. When they are blocked you can suffer a stroke.
  • Peripheral arterial disease. These arteries are in your arms, legs and pelvis. When they are blocked, you can suffer from numbness, pain and sometimes infections.

Atherosclerosis usually doesn`t cause symptoms until it severely narrows or totally blocks an artery. Many people don`t know they have the disease until they have a medical emergency.

A physical examination, imaging and other diagnostic tests can tell if you have it. Treatments include medicines, and medical procedures or surgery. Lifestyle changes can also help. These include following a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, maintaining a healthy weight, quitting smoking, and managing stress.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

Build-up of fatty material and calcium deposition in the arterial wall resulting in partial or complete occlusion of the arterial lumen.
NCI

A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
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atetóza

A dyskinesia characterized by an inability to maintain the fingers, toes, tongue, or other body parts in a stable position, resulting in continuous slow, sinusoidal, and flowing involuntary movements. This condition is frequently accompanied by CHOREA, where it is referred to as choreoathetosis. Athetosis may occur as a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES or DRUG TOXICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p76)
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úrazy sportovní

Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.
MSH

any injury that arises during participation in sports; most are not actually specific to sports.
CSP

Exercising is good for you, but sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices or improper gear can cause them. Some people get hurt because they are not in shape. Not warming up or stretching enough can also lead to injuries.

The most common sports injuries are

If you get hurt, stop playing. Continuing to play or exercise can cause more harm. Treatment often begins with the RICE (Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation) method to relieve pain, reduce swelling and speed healing. Other possible treatments include pain relievers, keeping the injured area from moving, rehabilitation and sometimes surgery.

NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.
NCI

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ostrovy Atlantského oceánu

Widely scattered islands in the Atlantic Ocean as far north as the AZORES and as far south as the South Sandwich Islands, with the greatest concentration found in the CARIBBEAN REGION. They include Annobon Island, Ascension, Canary Islands, Falkland Islands, Fernando Po (also called Isla de Bioko and Bioko), Gough Island, Madeira, Sao Tome and Principe, Saint Helena, and Tristan da Cunha.
MSH

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atlantoaxiální kloub

The joint involving the CERVICAL ATLAS and axis bones.
MSH

The joint located between the atlas and axis vertebrae.
NCI

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atlantookcipitální kloub

The joint located between the atlas and occipital vertebrae.
NCI

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atlas (obratel)

The first cervical vertebra.
MSH

The first of the seven cervical vertebrae. (NCI)
NCI

The first of the seven cervical vertebrae.
NCI

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atlasy

Works consisting of collections of illustrative plates, charts, etc., usually with explanatory captions.
MSH

reference book
CHV

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atmosféra

The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
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atmosférický tlak

The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.
MSH

pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.
CSP

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atomizéry

A medicinal nonventilatory nebulizer (atomizer) is a device that is intended to spray liquid medication in aerosol form into the air that a patient will breathe.
SPN

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ATP-citrát-(pro-S)-lyasa

An enzyme that, in the presence of ATP and COENZYME A, catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to yield acetyl CoA, oxaloacetate, ADP, and ORTHOPHOSPHATE. This reaction represents an important step in fatty acid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.8.
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ATP-fosforibosyltransferasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the pathway for histidine biosynthesis in Salmonella typhimurium. ATP reacts reversibly with 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate to yield N-1-(5`-phosphoribosyl)-ATP and pyrophosphate. EC 2.4.2.17.
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GTP-pyrofosfokinasa

An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the transfer of a pyrophosphate group from ATP to the 3`-OH group of GDP or GTP with the formation of guanosine 3`-diphosphate 5`-diphosphate or guanosine 3`-diphosphate 5`-triphosphate and AMP. The enzyme, also called stringent factor, is located in the relA gene in stringent strains of bacteria. The above synthesis is induced by mRNA and uncharged tRNA which is bound to the aminoacyl-t-RNA binding site of the ribosome by a codon-specific association. EC 2.7.6.5.
MSH

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atractylosid

A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.
MSH

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atrakurium

A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with short duration of action. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and its lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination provide clinical advantage over alternate non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents.
MSH

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Atracurium Besylate

A synthetic dibenzensulfonate derivative muscle relaxant, Atracurium Besylate acts as a non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent, with short to intermediary duration of action and no significant cardiovascular effects. Not dependent on kidney function for elimination, it provides clinical advantages over other non-depolarizing, neuromuscular blocking agents. (NCI04)
NCI

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atrazin

A selective triazine herbicide. Inhalation hazard is low and there are no apparent skin manifestations or other toxicity in humans. Acutely poisoned sheep and cattle may show muscular spasms, fasciculations, stiff gait, increased respiratory rates, adrenal degeneration, and congestion of the lungs, liver, and kidneys. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed)
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fibrilace síní

Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.
MSH

disorder of cardiac rhythm characterized by rapid, irregular atrial impulses and ineffective atrial contractions.
CSP

A supraventricular arrhythmia characterized by uncoordinated atrial myocardium activation due to multiple reentry circuits with consequent deterioration of atrial mechanical function. Instead of intermittently contracting, the atria quiver continuously in a chaotic pattern, causing a totally irregular, often tachycardia ventricular rate. On the ECG it is described by the replacement of consistent P waves by rapid oscillations or fibrillatory waves that vary in size, shape, and timing, associated with an irregular, frequently rapid ventricular response when atrioventricular conduction is intact.
NCI

A supraventricular arrhythmia characterized by uncoordinated atrial myocardium activation due to multiple reentry circuits with consequent deterioration of atrial mechanical function. Instead of intermittently contracting, the atria quiver continuously in a chaotic pattern, causing a totally irregular, often tachycardia ventricular rate. On the ECG it is described by the replacement of consistent P waves by rapid oscillations or fibrillatory waves that vary in size, shape, and timing, associated with an irregular, frequently rapid ventricular response when atrioventricular conduction is intact. (NCI)
NCI

An arrhythmia in which minute areas of the atrial myocardium are in various uncoordinated stages of depolarization and repolarization; instead of intermittently contracting, the atria quiver continuously in a chaotic pattern, causing a totally irregular, often rapid ventricular rate.
NCI

A disorder characterized by a dysrhythmia without discernible P waves and an irregular ventricular response due to multiple reentry circuits. The rhythm disturbance originates above the ventricles.
NCI

rapid tremor and shake of upper chambers of the heart
CHV

An arrhythmia is a problem with the speed or rhythm of the heartbeat. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common type of arrhythmia. The cause is a disorder in the heart`s electrical system.

Often, people who have AF may not even feel symptoms. But you may feel

  • Palpitations — an abnormal rapid heartbeat
  • Shortness of breath
  • Weakness or difficulty exercising
  • Chest pain
  • Dizziness or fainting
  • Fatigue
  • Confusion

AF can lead to an increased risk of stroke. In many patients, it can also cause chest pain, heart attack, or heart failure.

Doctors diagnose AF using family and medical history, a physical exam, and a test called an electrocardiogram (EKG), which looks at the electrical waves your heart makes. Treatments include medicines and procedures to restore normal rhythm.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute


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flutter síní

Rapid, irregular atrial contractions caused by a block of electrical impulse conduction in the right atrium and a reentrant wave front traveling up the inter-atrial septum and down the right atrial free wall or vice versa. Unlike ATRIAL FIBRILLATION which is caused by abnormal impulse generation, typical atrial flutter is caused by abnormal impulse conduction. As in atrial fibrillation, patients with atrial flutter cannot effectively pump blood into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES).
MSH

An electrocardiographic finding of an organized rhythmic contraction of the atria which is generally at a rate of 200-300 beats per minute.
NCI

A disorder characterized by a dysrhythmia with organized rhythmic atrial contractions with a rate of 200-300 beats per minute. The rhythm disturbance originates in the atria.
NCI

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atrioventrikulární blokáda

Impaired impulse conduction from HEART ATRIA to HEART VENTRICLES. AV block can mean delayed or completely blocked impulse conduction.
MSH

A delay or failure in the conduction of a cardiac impulse from the atria to the ventricles at the level of the atrioventricular node.
NCI

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nodus atrioventricularis

A small nodular mass of specialized muscle fibers located in the interatrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus. It gives rise to the atrioventricular bundle of the conduction system of the heart.
MSH

small nodular mass of specialized muscle fibers located in the interatrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus.
CSP

Subdivision of conducting system of heart which is located in the muscular part of the interatrial septum that is continuous with the atrioventricular bundle.
FMA

A small mass of specialized cardiac muscle fibers, located near the ostium of the coronary sinus and giving rise to the atrioventricular bundle of the conduction system of the heart.
NCI

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atropin

An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE.
MSH

anticholinergic alkaloid originally from Atropa belladonna; used as an antispasmodic to relax smooth muscles, to increase heart rate by blocking the vagus nerve, as an antidote for various toxic and anticholinesterase agents, and as an antisecretory, mydriatic, and cycloplegic.
CSP

A synthetically-derived form of the endogenous alkaloid isolated from the plant Atropa belladonna. Atropine functions as a sympathetic, competitive antagonist of muscarinic cholinergic receptors, thereby abolishing the effects of parasympathetic stimulation. This agent may induce tachycardia, inhibit secretions, and relax smooth muscles. (NCI04)
NCI

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