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genová přestavba T-lymfocytů

Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the antigen receptors.
MSH

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genová terapie

The introduction of new genes into cells for the purpose of treating disease by restoring or adding gene expression. Techniques include insertion of retroviral vectors, transfection, homologous recombination, and injection of new genes into the nuclei of single cell embryos. The entire gene therapy process may consist of multiple steps. The new genes may be introduced into proliferating cells in vivo (e.g., bone marrow) or in vitro (e.g., fibroblast cultures) and the modified cells transferred to the site where the gene expression is required. Gene therapy may be particularly useful for treating enzyme deficiency diseases, hemoglobinopathies, and leukemias and may also prove useful in restoring drug sensitivity, particularly for leukemia.
MSH

introduction of functioning gene or genes into cells for the purpose of correcting an inborn genetic error, treating a disease by restoring or adding gene expression, or providing a new function to the cell; new genes may be introduced into proliferating cells in vivo (e.g., bone marrow) or in vitro (e.g., fibroblast cultures) and the modified cells transferred to the site where the gene expression is required.
CSP

Treatment that alters a gene. In studies of gene therapy for cancer, researchers are trying to improve the body`s natural ability to fight the disease or to make the cancer cells more sensitive to other kinds of therapy.
NCI

Application of genetic material (usually DNA) into cells in order to permanently correct an inherited disease or an acquired disease such as cancer. The genetic material as `naked` DNA can be delivered into the cells alone or can be delivered into cells by different types of vectors such as viruses which may contain DNA or RNA. Gene therapy techniques attempt to replace a faulty/missing gene associated with a particular disease, mediate localized delivery of a protein producing specified therapeutic effects, or introduce new cellular functions. Gene therapies are designed to deliver genetic material into somatic cells and not germ cells, so that only cells of patients and not those of their offspring contain and express the genetic material delivered. (NCI04)
NCI

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všeobecný adaptační syndrom

The sum of all nonspecific systemic reactions of the body to long-continued exposure to systemic stress.
MSH

General adaptation syndrome is the set of changes in various organ systems of the body, especially the pituitary-endocrine system, in response to a wide range of strong external stimuli, both physiological and psychological. It is described as having three stages: alarm reaction, where the body detects the external stimulus; adaptation, where the body engages defensive countermeasures against the stressor; and exhaustion, where the body begins to run out of defenses. [http://www.onelook.com, PMID:14847556, Wikipedia:General_adaptation_syndrome]
GO

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anestetika celková

Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)
MSH

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péče o pacienta

The services rendered by members of the health profession and non-professionals under their supervision for the benefit of the patient. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p269)
MSH

services rendered by members of the health profession (or under their supervision) for the benefit of the patient.
CSP

Definition:To obtain records as part of patient care.


HL7V3.0

The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
NCI

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všeobecné zubní lékařství

Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.
MSH

A dentist involved in the treatment of the oral facial disease who has not limited his/her practice to any dental specialty.
NCI

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praktičtí lékaři

Physicians whose practice is not restricted to a specific field of MEDICINE.
MSH

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generalizace (psychologie)

The phenomenon of an organism`s responding to all situations similar to one in which it has been conditioned.
MSH

The process of formulating general concepts by abstracting common properties of instances; reasoning from detailed facts to general principles.
NCI

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generalizace – odpověď

The principle that after an organism learns to respond in a particular manner to a stimulus, that stimulus is effective in eliciting similar responses.
MSH

principle that after an organism learns to respond in a particular manner to a stimulus, that stimulus is effective in eliciting similar responses.
CSP

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generalizace – stimulus

The tendency to react to stimuli that are different from, but somewhat similar to, the stimulus used as a conditioned stimulus.
MSH

tendency to react to stimuli that are different from, but somewhat similar to, the stimulus used as a conditioned stimulus.
CSP

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geny

A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
MSH

segment of the genome that codes for a functional product.
CSP

The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.
NCI

Description:A DNA segment that contributes to phenotype/function. In the absence of demonstrated function a gene may be characterized by sequence, transcription or homology


HL7V3.0

A functional unit of heredity which occupies a specific position (locus) on a particular chromosome, is capable of reproducing itself exactly at each cell division, and directs the formation of a protein or other product.
NCI

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geny ara-C

Regulatory genes which encode a cyclic AMP receptor protein required for L-arabinose utilization in E. coli. It is an example of positive control or regulation of gene expression in the bacterial operon.
MSH

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geny bakteriální

The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
MSH

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geny vývojové

Genes that determine the fate of a cell or CELLS in a region of the embryo during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
MSH

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geny dominantní

Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
MSH

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geny env

DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).
MSH

DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses.
NCI

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geny fungální

The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
MSH

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geny gag

DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
MSH

This gene is involved in retroviral core structure.
NCI

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geny homeo box

genes that code for DNA binding genetic regulatory proteins in a variety of organisms, so named for the homeotic genes of Drosophila.
CSP

Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
MSH

Highly conserved DNA sequences which have been identified in specific gene transcripts ranging from those of Drosophila melanogaster to mouse and human. Homeobox genes function, in part, to generate DNA-binding proteins with an evolutionary conserved approximately 60-residue sequence (HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS).
NCI

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geny MHC třídy II

Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
MSH

Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice. Present peptides to CD4+ T cells.
NCI

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geny imunoglobulinové

Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).
MSH

genes encoding the light and heavy chain segments of immunoglobulins; these genes undergo several DNA rearrangements during the differentiation of stem cells into B cells and plasma cells, permitting synthesis of the various immunoglobulin classes.
CSP

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geny pro těžké řetězce imunoglobulinů

This region represents the germline organization of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus. The locus includes V (variable), J (joining), diversity (D), and C (constant) segments. During B cell development, a recombination event at the DNA level joins a D segment with a J segment; a V segment is then joined to the D-J gene. The C segment is later joined by splicing at the RNA level. Recombination of many different V segments with several D and J segments provides a wide range of antigen recognition. Additional diversity is attained by junctional diversity, resulting from the random additional of nucleotides by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase, and by somatic hypermutation, which occurs during B cell maturation in the spleen and lymph nodes. (from LocusLink)
NCI

Genes and gene segments encoding the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS. Gene segments of the heavy chain genes are symbolized V (variable), D (diversity), J (joining), and C (constant).
MSH

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geny pro lehké řetězce imunoglobulinů

Genes and gene segments encoding the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS. Gene segments of the light chain genes are designated as V (variable), J (joining), and C (constant).
MSH

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geny letální

Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
MSH

any gene in which a mutation will result in the premature death of the organism carrying it.
CSP

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geny MHC tř. I

Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.
MSH

Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man. Present peptides to CD8+ T cells.
NCI

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geny nef

DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that down-regulates the expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). nef is short for negative factor.
MSH

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geny překrývající se

Genes whose nucleotide sequences overlap to some degree. The overlapped sequences may involve structural or regulatory genes of eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells.
MSH

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geny pol

DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. “pol” is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
MSH

This gene is involved in the replication of the retroviral genome.
NCI

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geny recesivní

Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
MSH

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geny regulační

Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
MSH

structural genes that code for proteins which bind to DNA and regulate genetic events; compare with GENETIC REGULATORY ELEMENT and STRUCTURAL GENE.
CSP

Regulatory Genes encode products that regulate or circumscribe the activity of diverse cellular functions.
NCI

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