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truncus brachiocephalicus

The first and largest artery branching from the aortic arch. It distributes blood to the right side of the head and neck and to the right arm.
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venae brachiocephalicae

Large veins on either side of the root of the neck formed by the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. They drain blood from the head, neck, and upper extremities, and unite to form the superior vena cava.
MSH

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brachyterapie

A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.
MSH

A type of radiation therapy in which radioactive material is placed inside the body, into a tumor or body cavity.
NCI

Radiation treatment using a solid or enclosed radioisotopic source on the surface of the body or at a short distance from the area to be treated
CHV

A type of radiation therapy in which radioactive material sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters is placed directly into or near a tumor.
NCI

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bradykinin

A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
MSH

A nonapeptide kinin and neuropeptide involved in blood pressure regulation and pain receptor stimulation.
NCI

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mozek

The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
MSH

Subdivision of neuraxis that consists of neural tissue (which is organized into gray matter and white matter) and the cerebral ventricular system (cavity of organ part); it is embryologically derived from the rostral part of the neural tube; together with the spinal cord, the brain constitutes the organ neuraxis. Examples: There is only one brain.
UWDA

portion of the vertebrate central nervous system that is enclosed within the cranium, continuous with the spinal cord, and composed of gray matter and white matter; the primary center for the regulation and control of bodily activities, receiving and interpreting sensory impulses, and transmitting information to the muscles and body organs; also the seat of consciousness, thought, memory, and emotion; includes the functionally similar portion of the invertebrate nervous system.
CSP

Segment of neuraxis that has as its parts gray matter and white matter that surround the cerebral ventricular system; Examples: There is only one brain.
FMA

An organ composed of grey and white matter containing billions of neurons that is the center for intelligence and reasoning. It is protected by the bony cranium. (NCI)
NCI

An organ composed of grey and white matter containing billions of neurons that is the center for intelligence and reasoning. It is protected by the bony cranium.
NCI

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mozek – absces

A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)
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mozek – chemie

Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
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BURMUIN KORDOKADURA

A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt`s Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)
MSH

A violent jar or shock, or the condition which results from such an injury.
NCI

A concussion is a type of brain injury. It is a short loss of normal brain function in response to a head injury. Concussions are a common type of sports injury. You can also suffer from one if you suffer a blow to the head or hit your head after a fall.

After a concussion, you may have a headache or neck pain. You may also experience nausea, ringing in your ears, dizziness, or tiredness. You may feel dazed or not your normal self for several days or weeks after the injury. Consult your health professional if you notice any of your symptoms getting worse, or if you have more serious symptoms such as seizures or trouble walking or sleeping.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke


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mozek – poškození chronické

A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
MSH

brain damage which has persisted over a long period of time.
CSP

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mozková smrt

A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)
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mozek – nemoci

Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
MSH

pathologic conditions affecting the brain, which is composed of the intracranial components of the central nervous system.
CSP

The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, when problems occur, the results can be devastating.

Inflammation in the brain can lead to problems such as vision loss, weakness and paralysis. Loss of brain cells, which happens if you suffer a stroke, can affect your ability to think clearly. Brain tumors can also press on nerves and affect brain function. Some brain diseases are genetic. And we do not know what causes some brain diseases, such as Alzheimer`s disease.

The symptoms of brain diseases vary widely depending on the specific problem. In some cases, damage is permanent. In other cases, treatments such as surgery, medicines or physical therapy can correct the source of the problem or improve symptoms.


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mozek – nemoci metabolické

Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.
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Mozkový edém

A disorder characterized by swelling due to an excessive accumulation of fluid in the brain.
NCI

Swelling due to an excessive accumulation of fluid in the brain.
NCI

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mozek – mapování

Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
MSH

delineating function in relation to anatomy in the brain.
CSP

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nádory mozku

Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
MSH

neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum; subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (metastatic) forms; primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms; brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
CSP

The growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer).
NCI

A benign or malignant neoplasm that arises from or metastasizes to the brain.
NCI

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Hersenpathologie

Acute or chronic brain damage or dysfunction.
MSH

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mozkový kmen

The part of the brain that connects the cerebral hemispheres with the spinal cord. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
MSH

axial portion of the brain exclusive of the cerebellum and the forebrain; includes midbrain, medulla, and pons.
CSP

The part of the brain that is connected to the spinal cord.
NCI

The part of the brain that connects the cerebral hemispheres with the spinal cord. It consists of the mesencephalon, pons, and medulla oblongata. (MeSH)
NCI

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branchiální krajina

A region, of SOMITE development period, that contains a number of paired arches, each with a mesodermal core lined by ectoderm and endoderm on the two sides. In lower aquatic vertebrates, branchial arches develop into GILLS. In higher vertebrates, the arches forms outpouchings and develop into structures of the head and neck. Separating the arches are the branchial clefts or grooves.
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branchiom

A tumor derived from branchial epithelium or branchial rests. (Dorland, 27th ed)
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Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis

Gram-negative aerobic cocci of low virulence that colonize the nasopharynx and occasionally cause MENINGITIS; BACTEREMIA; EMPYEMA; PERICARDITIS; and PNEUMONIA.
MSH

A species of gram-negative, aerobic, oxidase-positive diplococcus bacteria within the phylum Proteobacteria that causes upper respiratory tract infections, particularly in immunocompromised hosts.
NCI

Any bacterial organism that can be assigned to the species Moraxella catarrhalis.
NCI

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Brassica

A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
MSH

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Brassidic Acids

Monounsaturated fatty acid with 22 carbons and the double bond in the trans formation at the 9th carbon from the methyl end.
NCI

A monounsaturated very long-chain fatty acid with a 22-carbon backbone and a single double bond originating from the 9th position from the methyl end, with the double bond in the trans- configuration.
NCI

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Brazílie

A country in Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean. (NCI)
NCI

Description:Realm code for use of Brazil


HL7V3.0

A country in Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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chléb

Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.
MSH

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prsy

In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
MSH

Subdivision of the pectoral part of the chest which consists of the nipple, areola and breast proper.
UWDA

Having to do with the breast.
NCI

Region of pectoral part of chest which has as its parts nipple, areola, breast proper.
FMA

One of two hemispheric projections of variable size situated in the subcutaneous layer over the pectoralis major muscle on either side of the chest. (NCI)
NCI

Glandular organ located on the chest. The breast is made up of connective tissue, fat, and breast tissue that contains the glands that can make milk.
NCI

One of two hemispheric projections of variable size situated in the subcutaneous layer over the pectoralis major muscle on either side of the chest.
NCI

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UGATZ TUMORE GAIZTOA

Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. Breast cancer kills more women in the United States than any cancer except lung cancer. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are a number of risk factors. Risks that you cannot change include

  • Age – the chance of getting breast cancer rises as a woman gets older
  • Genes – there are two genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, that greatly increase the risk. Women who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested.
  • Personal factors – beginning periods before age 12 or going through menopause after age 55

Other risks include being overweight, using hormone replacement therapy (also called menopausal hormone therapy), taking birth control pills, drinking alcohol, not having children or having your first child after age 35 or having dense breasts.

Symptoms of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a change in size or shape of the breast or discharge from a nipple. Breast self-exam and mammography can help find breast cancer early when it is most treatable. Treatment may consist of radiation, lumpectomy, mastectomy, chemotherapy and hormone therapy.

Men can have breast cancer, too, but the number of cases is small.

NIH: National Cancer Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

A primary or metastatic malignant neoplasm involving the breast. The vast majority of cases are carcinomas arising from the breast parenchyma or the nipple. Malignant breast neoplasms occur more frequently in females than in males. — 2003
NCI

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prs – cysta

A fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM and found in the BREAST. It may appear as a single large cyst in one breast, multifocal, or bilateral in FIBROCYSTIC BREAST DISEASE.
MSH

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prsy – nemoci

Pathological processes of the BREAST.
MSH

disease or disorder of the breast.
CSP

Most women experience breast changes at some time. Your age, hormone levels and medicines you take may cause lumps, bumps and discharges.

If you have a breast lump, pain, discharge or skin irritation, see your health care provider. Minor and serious breast problems have similar symptoms. Although many women fear cancer, most breast problems are not cancer.

Some common causes of breast changes are

  • Fibrocystic breast condition – lumpiness, thickening and swelling, often associated with a woman`s period
  • Cysts – fluid-filled lumps
  • Fibroadenomas – solid, round, rubbery lumps that move easily when pushed, occurring most in younger women
  • Intraductal papillomas – growths similar to warts near the nipple
  • Blocked or clogged milk ducts
  • Milk production when a woman is not breastfeeding
  • Injury

NIH: National Cancer Institute


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kojení

The nursing of an infant at the breast.
MSH

nursing of an infant at the mother`s breast.
CSP

Breast feeding offers many benefits to your baby. Breast milk contains the right balance of nutrients to help your infant grow into a strong and healthy toddler. Some of the nutrients in breast milk also help protect your infant against some common childhood illnesses and infections. It may also help your health. Certain types of cancer may occur less often in mothers who have breastfed their babies.

Women who don`t have health problems should try to give their babies breast milk for at least the first six months of life. There are some cases when it`s better not to breast feed. If you have HIV or active tuberculosis, you should not breast feed because you could give the infection to your baby. Certain medicines, illegal drugs, and alcohol can also pass through the breast milk and cause harm to your baby.

NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development


MEDLINEPLUS

The nursing of an infant at the mother`s breast.
NCI

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dechové testy

Any tests done on exhaled air.
MSH

any test done on exhaled air.
CSP

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