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mrtvola

A dead body, usually a human body.
MSH

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kadaverin

A foul-smelling diamine formed by bacterial decarboxylation of lysine.
MSH

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kadheriny

Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
MSH

family of cell surface glycoproteins, first identified in vertebrates, that mediate calcium dependent, homophilic cell adhesion and thereby control tissue morphogenesis.
CSP

The cadherins are transmembrane glycoproteins involved in calcium dependent specific cell-cell adhesion through homophilic binding. They are crucial for morphogenesis and synapse formation, but also are involved in tumor invasion. The classical cadherins have five homologous extracellular domains and a cytosolic domain which binds through catenin to the cytoskeleton. The extracellular domains are immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwiches comprising usually 7 strands in the two sheets.
NCI

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kadmium

An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
MSH

heavy metal element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114; cadmium and its salts are poisonous.
CSP

An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 112.4.
NCI

a kind of isotop
CHV

A metallic element that occurs naturally in tiny amounts in air, water, soil, and food. It is a byproduct of zinc refining, and is used to make batteries, pigments, plastics, alloys, and electroplate. It is also found in cigarette smoke. Exposure to high levels of cadmium may cause certain cancers and other health problems.
NCI

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kadmium – otrava

Poisoning occurring after exposure to cadmium compounds or fumes. It may cause gastrointestinal syndromes, anemia, or pneumonitis.
MSH

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kadmium – radioisotopy

Unstable isotopes of cadmium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cd atoms with atomic weights 103-105, 107, 109, 115, and 117-119 are radioactive cadmium isotopes.
MSH

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Caenorhabditis

A genus of small free-living nematodes. Two species, CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS and C. briggsae are much used in studies of genetics, development, aging, muscle chemistry, and neuroanatomy.
MSH

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cerulein

A specific decapeptide obtained from the skin of Hila caerulea, an Australian amphibian. Caerulein is similar in action and composition to CHOLECYSTOKININ. It stimulates gastric, biliary, and pancreatic secretion; and certain smooth muscle. It is used in paralytic ileus and as diagnostic aid in pancreatic malfunction.
MSH

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kyseliny kávové

A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. It is involved in plant growth regulation.
MSH

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kofein

A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine`s most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
MSH

1,3,7-trimethylxanthine, a central nervous system stimulant; action may be mediated by adenosine receptors.
CSP

An alkaloid stimulant having a purine double-ring structure composed of eight carbons and four nitrogen atoms with methyl groups attached to the nitrogen atoms at the 1, 3, and 7 positions and having double bonds at the carbons in positions 2 and 6.
NCI

Caffeine is a bitter substance found in coffee, tea, soft drinks, chocolate, kola nuts, and certain medicines. It has many effects on the body`s metabolism, including stimulating the central nervous system. This can make you more alert and give you a boost of energy.

For most people, the amount of caffeine in two to four cups of coffee a day is not harmful. However, too much caffeine can make you restless, anxious, and irritable. It may also keep you from sleeping well and cause headaches, abnormal heart rhythms, or other problems. If you stop using caffeine, you could get withdrawal symptoms.

Some people are more sensitive to the effects of caffeine than others. They should limit their use of caffeine. So should pregnant and nursing women. Certain drugs and supplements may interact with caffeine. If you have questions about whether caffeine is safe for you, talk with your health care provider.


MEDLINEPLUS

A substance found in the leaves and beans of the coffee tree, in tea, yerba mate, guarana berries, and in small amounts in cocoa. It can also be made in the laboratory, and is added to some soft drinks, foods, and medicines. Caffeine increases brain activity, alertness, attention, and energy. It may also increase blood pressure, heart rate, breathing rate, and the loss of water from the body in urine.
NCI

A naturally occurring xanthine derivative with central nervous system (CNS) stimulating activity. Due to the structural similarity to adenosine, caffeine binds to and blocks adenosine receptors, thereby preventing the inhibitory effects of adenosine on nerve cells. This leads to stimulation of medullary, vagal, vasomotor, and respiratory centers in the brain; and the release of epinephrine. Physiologic responses can include bradycardia, tachycardia, vasoconstriction, CNS excitablility, increased respiratory rate, increased blood pressure, increased blood flow to muscles, decreased blood flow to skin and inner organs, and release of glucose by the liver. Due to the interaction between adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors, caffeine can also indirectly increase the levels of dopamine in the brain. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40817&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40817&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C328″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A naturally occurring xanthine derivative with central nervous system (CNS) stimulating activity. Due to the structural similarity to adenosine, caffeine binds to and blocks adenosine receptors, thereby preventing the inhibitory effects of adenosine on nerve cells. This leads to stimulation of medullary, vagal, vasomotor, and respiratory centers in the brain; and the release of epinephrine. Physiologic responses can include bradycardia, tachycardia, vasoconstriction, CNS excitablility, increased respiratory rate, increased blood pressure, increased blood flow to muscles, decreased blood flow to skin and inner organs, and release of glucose by the liver. Due to the interaction between adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors, caffeine can also indirectly increase the levels of dopamine in the brain.
NCI

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kalkaneus

The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.
MSH

The irregular and largest tarsal bone that forms the heel.
NCI

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kalcifediol

The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body`s vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.
MSH

metabolic intermediate between cholecalciferol and 1,25- dihydroxycholecalciferol, with partial activity of latter.
CSP

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kalcifikace fyziologická

process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
CSP

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kalcinóza

Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
MSH

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kalcifylaxe

Condition of induced systemic hypersensitivity in which tissues respond to appropriate challenging agents with a sudden local calcification.
MSH

A rare syndrome characterized by vascular calcification and skin necrosis. It seen in patients with end stage renal disease.
NCI

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kalcitonin

A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.
MSH

a peptide hormone secreted by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland in response to hypercalcemia, which lowers blood calcium and phosphate by promoting renal excretion; chemotherapy for Paget`s disease and severe hypercalcemia.
CSP

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peptid se vztahem ke genu kalcitoninu

Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
MSH

37 residue neuropeptide expressed by the gene for calcitonin in neural (as opposed to thyroid) tissue; also inhibits insulin release and promotes amylase release by pancrease.
CSP

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kalcitriol

The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
MSH

most biologically active metabolite of cholecalciferol; acts via a DNA-binding steroid receptor which induces transcription of calcium transport factors in gut; USP drug (calcitriol) is given as an antihypocalcemic.
CSP

The active form of vitamin D. Calcitriol is formed in the kidneys or made in the laboratory. It is used as a drug to increase calcium levels in the body in order to treat skeletal and tissue-related calcium deficiencies caused by kidney or thyroid disorders.
NCI

A synthetic physiologically-active analog of vitamin D, specifically the vitamin D3 form. Calcitriol regulates calcium in vivo by promoting absorption in the intestine, reabsorption in the kidneys, and, along with parathyroid hormone, regulation of bone growth. A calcitriol receptor-binding protein appears to exist in the mucosa of human intestine. Calcitriol also induces cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, cell differentiation, and apoptosis, resulting in inhibition of proliferation of some tumor cell types. This agent may be chemopreventive for colon and prostate cancers. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=41919&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=41919&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C330″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A synthetic physiologically-active analog of vitamin D, specifically the vitamin D3 form. Calcitriol regulates calcium in vivo by promoting absorption in the intestine, reabsorption in the kidneys, and, along with parathyroid hormone, regulation of bone growth. A calcitriol receptor-binding protein appears to exist in the mucosa of human intestine. Calcitriol also induces cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, cell differentiation, and apoptosis, resulting in inhibition of proliferation of some tumor cell types. This agent may be chemopreventive for colon and prostate cancers. (NCI04)
NCI

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vápník

A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
MSH

basic element found in nearly all organized tissues; a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40; it is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth; it is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation and in many enzymatic processes.
CSP

A mineral needed for healthy teeth, bones, and other body tissues. It is the most common mineral in the body. A deposit of calcium in body tissues, such as breast tissue, may be a sign of disease.
NCI

You have more calcium in your body than any other mineral. Calcium has many important jobs. The body stores more than 99 percent of its calcium in the bones and teeth to help make and keep them strong. The rest is throughout the body in blood, muscle and the fluid between cells. Your body needs calcium to help muscles and blood vessels contract and expand, to secrete hormones and enzymes and to send messages through the nervous system.

It is important to get plenty of calcium in the foods you eat. Foods rich in calcium include dairy products such as milk, cheese and yogurt, and leafy, green vegetables. The exact amount of calcium you need depends on your age and other factors. Growing children and teenagers need more calcium than young adults. Older women need plenty of calcium to prevent osteoporosis. People who do not eat enough high-calcium foods should take a calcium supplement.

NIH: National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements


MEDLINEPLUS

An element with atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40.08.
NCI

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uhličitan vápenatý

Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
MSH

carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3) used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
CSP

A form of the mineral calcium that is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (a decrease in bone mass and density) and to treat heartburn and upset stomach. It is also being studied in the prevention of bone problems in people with cancer. It is a type of dietary supplement.
NCI

The carbonic salt of calcium (CaCO3). Calcium carbonate is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis, as an antacid in gastric hyperacidity for temporary relief of indigestion and heartburn, and as a calcium supplement for preventing and treating osteoporosis. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39679&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39679&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C332″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

The carbonic salt of calcium (CaCO3). Calcium carbonate is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis, as an antacid in gastric hyperacidity for temporary relief of indigestion and heartburn, and as a calcium supplement for preventing and treating osteoporosis. (NCI04)
NCI

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vápníkové kanály – agonisté

Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.
MSH

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blokátory kalciových kanálů

A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cell membranes or on the release and binding of calcium in intracellular pools. Since they are inducers of vascular and other smooth muscle relaxation, they are used in the drug therapy of hypertension and cerebrovascular spasms, as myocardial protective agents, and in the relaxation of uterine spasms.
MSH

class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cell membranes or on the release and binding of calcium in intracellular pools; since they are inducers of vascular and other smooth muscle relaxation, they are used in the drug therapy of hypertension and cerebrovascular spasms, as myocardial protective agents, and in the relaxation of uterine spasms.
CSP

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vápníkové kanály

Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
MSH

voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions.
CSP

An ion channel with selective permeability to calcium.
NCI

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chlorid vápenatý

A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
MSH

A crystalline, white substance, soluble in water, Calcium Chloride is the chloride salt of calcium, a bivalent metallic element with many crucial biological roles. Calcium is a major constituent of the skeleton but plays many roles as an intracellular and plasma ion as well. In medicine, calcium chloride is also used as a 10% solution in injection, for calcium replenishment. (NCI04)
NCI

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edetate calcium disodium

Contracted name for a salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetate, an agent used as a chelator of lead and some other heavy metals. C10H12CaN2Na2O8.
NCI

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kalciumdobesilát

A drug used to reduce hemorrhage in diabetic retinopathy.
MSH

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fluorid vápenatý

Calcium fluoride. Occurring in nature as the mineral fluorite or fluorspar. It is the primary source of fluorine and its compounds. Pure calcium fluoride is used as a catalyst in dehydration and dehydrogenation and is used to fluoridate drinking water. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
MSH

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Calcium Glucarate

The calcium salt form of glucaric acid, a natural substance found in many fruits and vegetables, with potential anti-cancer property. The active metabolite of calcium glucarate, D-Glucaro-1,4-Lactone in vivo, is an inhibitor of beta-Glucuronidase, an enzyme found in certain bacteria residing in the human gut. One of the key processes in which the human body eliminates toxic chemicals as well as hormones (such as estrogen) is by attaching glucuronic acid to them in the liver and then excreting the complex in the bile. When beta-glucuronidase breaks the bond, it prolongs the stay of the hormone or toxic chemical in the body. Elevated beta-glucuronidase activity has been implicated to be associated with an increased risk for hormone-dependent cancers like breast, prostate, and colon cancers. Therefore, supplementing calcium glucarate may suppress the developments of hormone-dependent cancers.
NCI

The calcium salt form of glucaric acid, a natural substance found in many fruits and vegetables, with potential anti-cancer property. The active metabolite of calcium glucarate, D-Glucaro-1,4-Lactone in vivo, is an inhibitor of beta-Glucuronidase, an enzyme found in certain bacteria reside in the human gut. One of the key processes in which human body eliminates toxic chemicals as well as hormones (such as estrogen) is by attaching glucuronic acid to them in the liver and then excreting the complex in the bile. When beta-glucuronidase breaks the bond, it prolongs the stay of the hormone or toxic chemical in the body. Elevated beta-glucuronidase activity has been implicated to be associated with an increased risk for hormone-dependent cancers like breast, prostate, and colon cancers. Thereby, supplementing calcium glucarate may suppress the developments of hormone-dependent cancers. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=41803&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=41803&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C335″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

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glukonát vápenatý

The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.
MSH

The mineral calcium, combined with a form of the sugar glucose. It is used to prevent and treat bone loss. It is also being studied in the treatment of bone loss and nerve damage caused by chemotherapy.
NCI

The gluconate salt of calcium. An element or mineral necessary for normal nerve, muscle, and cardiac function, calcium as the gluconate salt helps to maintain calcium balance and prevent bone loss when taken orally. This agent may also be chemopreventive for colon and other cancers. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39172&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39172&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C336″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

The gluconate salt of calcium. An element or mineral necessary for normal nerve, muscle, and cardiac function, calcium as the gluconate salt helps to maintain calcium balance and prevent bone loss when taken orally. This agent may also be chemopreventive for colon and other cancers. (NCI04)
NCI

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hydroxid vápenatý

A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.
MSH

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