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Cayman Islands

An island group in the Caribbean Sea, nearly one-half of the way from Cuba to Honduras. (NCI)
NCI

An island group in the Caribbean Sea, nearly one-half of the way from Cuba to Honduras. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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proteinkinasa CDC28, S cerevisiae

A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.
MSH

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Cebidae

American monkeys with prehensile tail, widely separated nostrils, nonopposable thumb; many forms are omnivorous and social in families.
CSP

A family of New World monkeys in the infraorder PLATYRRHINI, consisting of nine subfamilies: ALOUATTINAE; AOTINAE; Atelinae; Callicebinae; CALLIMICONINAE; CALLITRICHINAE; CEBINAE; Pithecinae; and SAIMIRINAE. They inhabit the forests of South and Central America, comprising the largest family of South American monkeys.
MSH

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Cebuella

Pigmy marmosets, sometimes considered a separate genus.
MSH

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Cebus

A genus of the family CEBIDAE, subfamily CEBINAE, consisting of four species which are divided into two groups, the tufted and untufted. C. apella has tufts of hair over the eyes and sides of the head. The remaining species are without tufts – C. capucinus, C. nigrivultatus, and C. albifrons. Cebus inhabits the forests of Central and South America.
MSH

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cékum – nemoci

Pathological developments in the CECUM.
MSH

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cékum – nádory

Tumors or cancer of the CECUM.
MSH

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cékostomie

Surgical construction of an opening into the CECUM with a tube through the ABDOMINAL WALL (tube cecostomy) or by skin level approach, in which the cecum is sewn to the surrounding PERITONEUM. Its primary purpose is decompression of colonic obstruction.
MSH

Surgical creation of an opening in the cecum.
NCI

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cékum

The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
MSH

A pouch that forms the first part of the large intestine. It connects the small intestine to the colon, which is part of the large intestine.
NCI

A blind pouch-like commencement of the colon in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen at the end of the small intestine and the start of the large intestine. (from On-line Medical Dictionary)
NCI

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cefaklor

Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibiotic derivative of CEPHALEXIN.
MSH

A beta-lactam, second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Cefaclor binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) located in bacterial cytoplasmic membranes. PBPs are enzymes involved in the terminal stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall and in reshaping the cell wall during growth and division. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and causes cell lysis.
NCI

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cefadroxil

Long-acting, broad-spectrum, water-soluble, CEPHALEXIN derivative.
MSH

A semi-synthetic, beta-lactam, first-generation cephalosporin antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Cefadroxil binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. PBPs are enzymes involved in the terminal stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall and in reshaping the cell wall during growth and division. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and causes cell lysis.
NCI

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cefamandol

Semisynthetic wide-spectrum cephalosporin with prolonged action, probably due to beta-lactamase resistance. It is used also as the nafate.
MSH

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cefatrizin

Orally active semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with broad-spectrum activity.
MSH

A broad-spectrum, semisynthetic, first-generation cephalosporin with antibacterial activity. Cefatrizine binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. PBPs are enzymes involved in the terminal stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall and in reshaping the cell wall during growth and division. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and causes cell lysis.
NCI

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cefazolin

A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.
MSH

A beta-lactam antibiotic and first-generation cephalosporin with bactericidal activity. Cefazolin binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and causes cell lysis.
NCI

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cefmenoxim

A cephalosporin antibiotic that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. It is active against most common gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms, is a potent inhibitor of Enterobacteriaceae, and is highly resistant to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases. The drug has a high rate of efficacy in many types of infection and to date no severe side effects have been noted.
MSH

A third-generation, semi-synthetic, beta-lactam cephalosporin antibiotic with antibacterial activity. Cefmenoxime binds to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), transpeptidases that are responsible for crosslinking of peptidoglycan. By preventing crosslinking of peptidoglycan, cell wall integrity is lost and cell wall synthesis is halted.
NCI

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cefmetazol

A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic with a broad spectrum of activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. It has a high rate of efficacy in many types of infection and to date no severe side effects have been noted.
MSH

A second-generation, semi-synthetic, beta-lactam cephalosporin antibiotic with antibacterial activity. Cefmetazole binds to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), transpeptidases that are responsible for crosslinking of peptidoglycan. By preventing crosslinking of peptidoglycan, cell wall integrity is lost and cell wall synthesis is halted.
NCI

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cefonicid

A second-generation cephalosporin administered intravenously or intramuscularly. Its bactericidal action results from inhibition of cell wall synthesis. It is used for urinary tract infections, lower respiratory tract infections, and soft tissue and bone infections.
MSH

A second-generation, semi-synthetic, beta-lactam cephalosporin antibiotic with antibacterial activity. Cefonicid binds to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), transpeptidases that are responsible for crosslinking of peptidoglycan. By preventing crosslinking of peptidoglycan, cell wall integrity is lost and cell wall synthesis is halted.
NCI

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cefoperazon

Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin with a tetrazolyl moiety that is resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed especially against Pseudomonas infections.
MSH

A semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, third-generation cephalosporin with antibacterial activity. Cefoperazone binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. PBPs are enzymes involved in the terminal stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall and in reshaping the cell wall during growth and division. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and causes cell lysis.
NCI

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cefotaxim

Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.
MSH

A third generation semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Cefotaxime inhibits mucopeptide synthesis by binding to and inactivating penicillin binding proteins thereby interfering with the final transpeptidation step required for cross-linking of peptidoglycan units which are a component of bacterial cell walls. This results in a reduction of cell wall stability and causes cell lysis. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39177&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39177&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C354″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A third generation semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Cefotaxime inhibits mucopeptide synthesis by binding to and inactivating penicillin binding proteins thereby interfering with the final transpeptidation step required for cross-linking of peptidoglycan units which are a component of bacterial cell walls. This results in a reduction of cell wall stability and causes cell lysis.
NCI

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cefotetan

A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.
MSH

A semi-synthetic, broad-spectrum, beta-lactamase-resistant, second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic derived from cephalosporium. The bactericidal activity of cefotetan disodium is caused by an inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis via inhibition of cross-linking of peptidoglycans. This results in a reduction of cell wall stability and causes cell lysis. Cefotetan disodium is more active against gram-negative organisms and less active against gram-positive organisms compared to first-generation cephalosporins.
NCI

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cefotiam

One of the CEPHALOSPORINS that has a broad spectrum of activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.
MSH

A third-generation, semi-synthetic, beta-lactam cephalosporin antibiotic with antibacterial activity. Cefotiam binds to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), transpeptidases that are responsible for crosslinking of peptidoglycan. By preventing crosslinking of peptidoglycan, cell wall integrity is lost and cell wall synthesis is halted.
NCI

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cefoxitin

A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.
MSH

A semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, second-generation cephalosporin with antibacterial activity. Cefoxitin binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. PBPs are enzymes involved in the terminal stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall and in reshaping the cell wall during growth and division. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and causes cell lysis.
NCI

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cefsulodin

A pyridinium-substituted semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial used especially for Pseudomonas infections in debilitated patients.
MSH

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ceftazidim

Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.
MSH

A beta-lactam, third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Ceftazidime binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. PBPs participate in the terminal stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall, and in reshaping the cell wall during cell division. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and causes cell lysis. Compared to the second and first generation cephalosporins, ceftazidime is more active against gram-negative bacteria and less active against gram-positive bacteria. Ceftazidine also crosses the blood-brain barrier and reaches therapeutic concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS).
NCI

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ceftizoxim

A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic which can be administered intravenously or by suppository. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It has few side effects and is reported to be safe and effective in aged patients and in patients with hematologic disorders.
MSH

A semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, beta-lactamase-resistant, third-generation cephalosporin with antibacterial activity. Ceftizoxime binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. PBPs are enzymes involved in the terminal stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall and in reshaping the cell wall during growth and division. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and causes cell lysis.
NCI

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ceftriaxon

A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.
MSH

An antibiotic drug used to treat infection. It belongs to the family of drugs called cephalosporin antibiotics.
NCI

A beta-lactam, third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Ceftriaxone binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. PBPs participate in the terminal stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall, and in reshaping the cell wall during cell division. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and causes cell lysis. Compared to the second and first generation cephalosporins, ceftriaxone is more active against gram-negative bacteria and less active against gram-positive bacteria. Ceftriaxone also crosses the blood-brain barrier and reaches therapeutic concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS).
NCI

a kind of antibiotics
CHV

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cefuroxim

Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.
MSH

A semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, beta-lactamase-resistant, second-generation cephalosporin with antibacterial activity. Cefuroxime binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. PBPs are enzymes involved in the terminal stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall and in reshaping the cell wall during growth and division. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and causes cell lysis.
NCI

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arteria coeliaca

The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.
MSH

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celiakie

A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.
MSH

disease occurring in children and adults characterized by sensitivity to gluten, with chronic inflammation and atrophy of the mucosa of the upper small intestine; manifestations include diarrhea, malabsorption, steatorrhea, and nutritional and vitamin deficiencies.
CSP

If you have celiac disease and eat foods with gluten, your immune system responds by damaging the small intestine. Gluten is a protein in wheat, rye and barley. It is found mainly in foods but may also be in other products like medicines, vitamins and even the glue on stamps and envelopes.

Celiac disease affects each person differently. Symptoms may occur in the digestive system, or in other parts of the body. One person might have diarrhea and abdominal pain, while another person may be irritable or depressed. Irritability is one of the most common symptoms in children. Some people have no symptoms.

Celiac disease is genetic. Blood tests can help your doctor diagnose the disease. Your doctor may also need to examine a small piece of tissue from your small intestine. Treatment is a diet free of gluten.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

A digestive disease that is caused by an immune response to a protein called gluten, which is found in wheat, rye, barley, and oats. Celiac disease damages the lining of the small intestine and interferes with the absorption of nutrients from food. A person with celiac disease may become malnourished no matter how much food is consumed.
NCI

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plexus coeliacus

A complex network of nerve fibers including sympathetic and parasympathetic efferents and visceral afferents. The celiac plexus is the largest of the autonomic plexuses and is located in the abdomen surrounding the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries.
MSH

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